Orbis Pictus

Author: John Amos Comenius

Editor: Charles William Bardeen

Translator: Charles Hoole

Produced by Louise Hope, Chris Curnow, Joseph Cooper and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net

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Editor’s Preface (1887)
Critics’ Comments (1887)
Title Page (1727/1887)
Author’s Preface (1658)
Translator’s Introduction (1659)
Advertisement (1727)


Latin Index
English Index
Transcriber’s Notes




John Amos Comenius.


This work is, indeed, the first children’s picture book.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th Edition, vi. 182.


School Bulletin Publications 1874



Copyright, 1887, by C. W. Bardeen.

It may not be generally known that Comenius was once solicited to become President of Harvard College. The following is a quotation from Vol. II, p. 14, of Cotton Mather’s Magnalia:

“That brave old man, Johannes Amos Commenius, the fame of whose worth has been TRUMPETTED as far as more than three languages (whereof everyone is indebted unto his Janua) could carry it, was indeed agreed withal, by one Mr. Winthrop in his travels through the LOW COUNTRIES, to come over to New England, and illuminate their Colledge and COUNTRY, in the quality of a President, which was now become vacant. But the solicitations of the Swedish Ambassador diverting him another way, that incomparable Moravian became not an American.”

This was on the resignation of President Dunster, in 1654—Note of Prof. Payne, Compayre’s History of Education, Boston, 1886, p. 125.


Editor’s Preface.

When it is remembered that this work is not only an educational classic of prime importance, but that it was the first picture-book ever made for children and was for a century the most popular text-book in Europe, and yet has been for many years unattainable on account of its rarity, the wonder is, not that it is reproduced now but that it has not been reproduced before. But the difficulty has been to find a satisfactory copy. Many as have been the editions, few copies have been preserved. It was a book children were fond of and wore out in turning the leaves over and over to see the pictures. Then as the old copper-plates became indistinct they were replaced by wood-engravings, of coarse execution, and often of changed treatment. Von Raumer complains that the edition of 1755 substitutes for the original cut of the Soul, (No. 43, as here given,) a picture of an eye, and in a table the figures I. I. II. I. I. II., and adds that it is difficult to recognize in this an expressive psychological symbol, and to explain it. In an edition I have, published in Vienna in 1779, this cut is omitted altogether, and indeed there are but 82 in place of the 157 found in earlier editions, the following, as numbered in this edition, being omitted:

1, the alphabet, 2, 36, 43, 45, 66, 68, 75, 76, 78–80, 87, 88, 92–122, 124, 126, 128, 130–141.


On the other hand, the Vienna edition contains a curious additional cut. It gives No. 4, the Heaven, practically as in this edition, but puts another cut under it in which the earth is revolving about the sun; and after the statement of Comenius, “Coelum rotatur, et ambit terram, in medio stantem” interpolates: “prout veteres crediderunt; recentiores enim defendunt motum terrae circa solem” [as the ancients used to think; for later authorities hold that the motion of the earth is about the sun.]

Two specimen pages from another edition are inserted in Payne’s Compayré’s History of Education (between pp. 126, 127). The cut is the representative of No. 103 in this edition, but those who compare them will see not only how much coarser is the execution of the wood-cut Prof. Payne has copied, but what liberties have been taken with the design. The only change in the Latin text, however, is from Designat Figuras rerum in the original, to Figuram rerum designat.

In this edition the cuts are unusually clear copies of the copper-plates of the first edition of 1658, from which we have also taken the Latin text. The text for the English translation is from the English edition of 1727, in which for the first time the English words were so arranged as to stand opposite their Latin equivalents.

The cuts have been reproduced with great care by the photographic process. I thought best not to permit them to be retouched, preferring occasional indistinctness to modern tampering with the originals that would make them less authentic.


The English text is unchanged from that of the 1727 edition, except in rare instances where substitutions have been made for single words not now permissible. The typography suggests rather than imitates the quaintness of the original, and the paper was carefully selected to produce so far as practicable the impression of the old hand-presses.

In short my aim has been to put within the reach of teachers at a moderate price a satisfactory reproduction of this important book; and if the sale of the Orbis Pictus seems to warrant it, I hope subsequently to print as a companion volume the Vestibulum and Janua of the same author, of which I have choice copies.

C. W. Bardeen.

Syracuse, Sept. 28, 1887.


Comments upon the Orbis Pictus.

During four years he here prosecuted his efforts in behalf of education with commendable success, and wrote, among other works, his celebrated Orbis Pictus, which has passed through a great many editions, and survived a multitude of imitations. —Smith’s History of Education, N.Y., 1842, p. 129.

The most eminent educator of the seventeenth century, however, was John Amos Comenius . . . . . . His Orbis Sensualium Pictus, published in 1657, enjoyed a still higher renown. The text was much the same with the Janua, being intended as a kind of elementary encyclopædia; but it differed from all previous text-books, in being illustrated with pictures, on copper and wood, of the various topics discussed in it. This book was universally popular. In those portions of Germany where the schools had been broken up by the “Thirty years’ war,” mothers taught their children from its pages. Corrected and amended by later editors, it continued for nearly two hundred years, to be a text-book of the German schools. —History and Progress of Education, by Philobiblius, N.Y., 1860, p. 210.

The “Janua” would, therefore, have had but a short-lived popularity with teachers, and a still shorter with learners, if Comenius had not carried out his vii principle of appealing to the senses, and called in the artist. The result was the “Orbis Pictus,” a book which proved a favorite with young and old, and maintained its ground in many a school for more than a century . . . . I am sorry I cannot give a specimen of this celebrated book with its quaint pictures. The artist, of course, was wanting in the technical skill which is now commonly displayed even in the cheapest publications, but this renders his delineations none the less entertaining. As a picture of the life and manners of the seventeenth century, the work has great historical interest, which will, I hope, secure for it another English edition. —Quick’s Educational Reformers, 1868; Syracuse edition, p. 79.

But the principle on which he most insisted is that the teaching of words and things must go together, hand in hand. When we consider how much time is spent over new languages, what waste of energy is lavished on mere preparation, how it takes so long to lay a foundation that there is no time to lay a building upon it, we must conclude that it is in the acceptance and development of this principle that the improvement of education will in the future consist. Any one who attempts to inculcate this great reform will find that its first principles are contained in the writings of Comenius. —Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition, vii. 674.

The first edition of this celebrated book was published at Nuremberg in 1657; soon after a translation was made into English by Charles Hoole. The last English edition appeared in 1777, and this was reprinted in America in 1812. This was the first viii illustrated school-book, and was the first attempt at what now passes under the name of “object lessons.” —Short History of Education, W. H. Payne, Syracuse, 1881, p. 103.

Of these, the “Janua” and the “Orbis” were translated into most European and some of the Oriental languages. It is evident that these practices of Comenius contain the germs of things afterwards connected with the names of Pestalozzi and Stow. It also may be safely assumed that many methods that are now in practical use, were then not unknown to earliest teachers. —Gill’s Systems of Education, London, 1876, p. 13.

The more we reflect on the method of Comenius, the more we shall see it is replete with suggestiveness, and we shall feel surprised that so much wisdom can have lain in the path of schoolmasters for two hundred and fifty years, and that they have never stooped to avail themselves of its treasures. —Browning’s Introduction to the History of Educational Theories, 1882, New York edition, p. 67.

The “Orbis Pictus,” the first practical application of the intuitive method, had an extraordinary success, and has served as a model for the innumerable illustrated books which for three centuries have invaded the schools. —Compayre’s History of Pedagogy, Payne’s translation, Boston, 1886, p. 127.

He remained at Patak four years, which were characterized by surprising literary activity. During this short period he produced no less than fifteen different works, among them his “World Illustrated” (Orbis Pictus), the most famous of all his writings. ix It admirably applied the principle that words and things should be learned together . . . . The “World Illustrated” had an enormous circulation, and remained for a long time the most popular text-book in Europe. —Painter’s History of Education, N.Y., 1886, p. 206.

Or, si ce livre n’est qu’un équivalent de la véritable intuition; si, ensuite, le contenu du tout paraît fort défectueux, au point de vue de la science de nos jours; si, enfin, un effort exagéré pour l’intégrité de la conception de l’enfant a créé, pour les choses modernes, trop de dénominations latines qui paraissent douteuses, l’Orbis pictus était pourtant, pour son temps, une oeuvre très originale et très spirituelle, qui fit faire un grand progrès à la pédagogie et servit longtemps de livre d’école utile et de modèle à d’innombrables livres d’images, souvent pires. —Histoire d’Éducation, Frederick Dittes, Redolfi’s French translation, Paris, 1880, p. 178.

Here Comenius wrote, among others, his second celebrated work the “Orbis Pictus.” He was not, however, able to finish it in Hungary for want of a skilful engraver on copper. For such a one he carried it to Michael Endter, the bookseller at Nuremberg, but the engraving delayed the publication of the book for three years more. In 1657 Comenius expressed the hope that it would appear during the next autumn. With what great approbation the work was received at its first appearance, is shown by the fact that within two years, in 1659, Endter had published a second enlarged edition. —Karl Von x Raumer, translated in Barnard’s Journal of Education, v. 260.

The “Janua” had an enormous sale, and was published in many languages, but the editions and sale of the “Orbis Pictus” far exceeded those of the “Janua,” and, indeed, for some time it was the most popular text-book in Europe, and deservedly so. —Laurie’s John Amos Comenius, Boston edition, p. 185.


see end of text


Gen. ii. 19, 20.

The Lord God brought unto Adam every Beast of the Field, and every Fowl of the Air, to see what he would call them. And Adam gave Names to all Cattle, and to the Fowl of the Air, and to every Beast of the Field.

Gen. ii. 19, 20.

Adduxit Dominus Deus ad Adam cuncta Animantia Terræ, & universa volatilia Cœli, ut videret quomodo vocaret illa. Appellavitque Adam Nominibus suis cuncta Animantia, & universa volatilia Cœli, & omnes Bestias Agri.

I. A. Comenii opera Didactica par. 1. p. 6, Amst. 1657. fol.

Didacticæ nostræ prora & puppis esto: Investigare, & invenire modum, quo Docentes minus doceant, Discentes vero plus discant: Scholæ minus habeant Strepitus, nauseæ, vani laboris; plus autem otii, deliciarum, solidique profectus: Respublica Christiana minus tenebrarum confusionis dissidiorum; plus lucis, ordinis, pacis & tranquilitatis.


The Author’s Preface to the Reader.

Instruction is the means to expel Rudeness, with which young wits ought to be well furnished in Schools: But so, as that the teaching be 1. True, 2. Full, 3. Clear, and 4. Solid.

1. It will be true, if nothing be taught but such as is beneficial to ones life; lest there be a cause of complaining afterwards. We know not necessary things, because we have not learned things necessary.

2. It will be full, if the mind be polished for wisdom, the tongue for eloquence, and the hands for a neat way of living. This will be that grace of one’s life, to be wise, to act, to speak.

3, 4. It will be clear, and by that, firm and solid, if whatever is taught and learned, be not obscure, or confused, but apparent, distinct, and articulate, as the fingers on the hands.

The ground of this business, is, that sensual objects may be rightly presented to the senses, for fear they may not be received. I say, and say it again aloud, that this last is the foundation of all the rest: because we can neither act nor speak wisely, unless we first rightly understand all the things which are xiv to be done, and whereof we are to speak. Now there is nothing in the understanding, which was not before in the sense. And therefore to exercise the senses well about the right perceiving the differences of things, will be to lay the grounds for all wisdom, and all wise discourse, and all discreet actions in ones course of life. Which, because it is commonly neglected in schools, and the things which are to be learned are offered to scholars, without being understood or being rightly presented to the senses, it cometh to pass, that the work of teaching and learning goeth heavily onward, and affordeth little benefit.

See here then a new help for schools, A Picture and Nomenclature of all the chief things in the world, and of men’s actions in their way of living: Which, that you, good Masters, may not be loath to run over with your scholars, I will tell you, in short, what good you may expect from it.

It is a little Book, as you see, of no great bulk, yet a brief of the whole world, and a whole language: full of Pictures, Nomenclatures, and Descriptions of things.

I. The Pictures are the representation of all visible things, (to which also things invisible are reduced after their fashion) of the whole world. And that in that very order of things, in which they are described in the Janua Latinæ Linguæ; and with that fulness, that nothing very necessary or of great concernment is omitted.

II. The Nomenclatures are the Inscriptions, or Titles set every one over their own Pictures, expressing the whole thing by its own general term.


III. The Descriptions are the explications of the parts of the Picture, so expressed by their own proper terms, as that same figure which is added to every piece of the picture, and the term of it, always sheweth what things belongeth one to another.

Which such Book, and in such a dress may (I hope) serve,

I. To entice witty children to it, that they may not conceit a torment to be in the school, but dainty fare. For it is apparent, that children (even from their infancy almost) are delighted with Pictures, and willingly please their eyes with these lights: And it will be very well worth the pains to have once brought it to pass, that scare-crows may be taken away out of Wisdom’s Gardens.

II. This same little Book will serve to stir up the Attention, which is to be fastened upon things, and even to be sharpened more and more: which is also a great matter. For the Senses (being the main guides of childhood, because therein the mind doth not as yet raise up itself to an abstracted contemplation of things) evermore seek their own objects, and if they be away, they grow dull, and wry themselves hither and thither out of a weariness of themselves: but when their objects are present, they grow merry, wax lively, and willingly suffer themselves to be fastened upon them, till the thing be sufficiently discerned. This Book then will do a good piece of service in taking (especially flickering) wits, and preparing them for deeper studies.

III. Whence a third good will follow; that children being won hereunto, and drawn over with this xvi way of heeding, may be furnished with the knowledge of the prime things that are in the world, by sport and merry pastime. In a word, this Book will serve for the more pleasing using of the Vestibulum and Janua Linguarum, for which end it was even at the first chiefly intended. Yet if it like any, that it be bound up in their native tongues also, it promiseth three good thing of itself.

I. First it will afford a device for learning to read more easily than hitherto, especially having a symbolical alphabet set before it, to wit, the characters of the several letters, with the image of that creature, whose voice that letter goeth about to imitate, pictur’d by it. For the young Abc scholar will easily remember the force of every character by the very looking upon the creature, till the imagination being strengthened by use, can readily afford all things; and then having looked over a table of the chief syllables also (which yet was not thought necessary to be added to this book) he may proceed to the viewing of the Pictures, and the inscriptions set over ’em. Where again the very looking upon the thing pictured suggesting the name of the thing, will tell him how the title of the picture is to be read. And thus the whole book being gone over by the bare titles of the pictures, reading cannot but be learned; and indeed too, which thing is to be noted, without using any ordinary tedious spelling, that most troublesome torture of wits, which may wholly be avoided by this method. For the often reading over the Book, by those larger descriptions of things, and which are set after the Pictures, will be able perfectly to beget a habit of reading.


II. The same book being used in English, in English Schools, will serve for the perfect learning of the whole English tongue, and that from the bottom; because by the aforesaid descriptions of things, the words and phrases of the whole language are found set orderly in their own places. And a short English Grammar might be added at the end, clearly resolving the speech already understood into its parts; shewing the declining of the several words, and reducing those that are joined together under certain rules.

III. Thence a new benefit cometh, that that very English Translation may serve for the more ready and pleasant learning of the Latin tongue: as one may see in this Edition, the whole book being so translated, that every where one word answereth to the word over against it, and the book is in all things the same, only in two idioms, as a man clad in a double garment. And there might be also some observations and advertisements added in the end, touching those things only, wherein the use of the Latin tongue differeth from the English. For where there is no difference, there needeth no advertisement to be given. But, because the first tasks of learners ought to be little and single, we have filled this first book of training one up to see a thing of himself, with nothing but rudiments, that is, with the chief of things and words, or with the grounds of the whole world, and the whole language, and of all our understanding about things. If a more perfect description of things, and a fuller knowledge of a language, and a clearer light of the understanding be xviii sought after (as they ought to be) they are to be found somewhere whither there will now be an easy passage by this our little Encyclopædia of things subject to the senses. Something remaineth to be said touching the more chearful use of this book.

I. Let it be given to children into their hands to delight themselves withal as they please, with the sight of the pictures, and making them as familiar to themselves as may be, and that even at home before they be put to school.

II. Then let them be examined ever and anon (especially now in the school) what this thing or that thing is, and is called, so that they may see nothing which they know not how to name, and that they can name nothing which they cannot shew.

III. And let the things named them be shewed, not only in the Picture, but also in themselves; for example, the parts of the body, clothes, books, the house, utensils, &c.

IV. Let them be suffered also to imitate the Pictures by hand, if they will, nay rather, let them be encouraged, that they may be willing: first, thus to quicken the attention also towards the things; and to observe the proportion of the parts one towards another; and lastly to practise the nimbleness of the hand, which is good for many things.

V. If anything here mentioned, cannot be presented to the eye, it will be to no purpose at all to offer them by themselves to the scholars; as colours, relishes, &c., which cannot here be pictured out with ink. For which reason it were to be wished, that things rare and not easy to be met withal at home, xix might be kept ready in every great school, that they may be shewed also, as often as any words are to be made of them, to the scholars.

Thus at last this school would indeed become a school of things obvious to the senses, and an entrance to the school intellectual. But enough: Let us come to the thing it self.


The Translator, to all judicious and industrious School-Masters.


There are a few of you (I think) but have seen, and with great willingness made use of (or at least perused,) many of the Books of this well-deserving Author Mr. John Comenius, which for their profitableness to the speedy attainment of a language, have been translated in several countries, out of Latin into their own native tongue.

Now the general verdict (after trial made) that hath passed, touching those formerly extant, is this, that they are indeed of singular use, and very advantageous to those of more discretion, (especially to such as already have a smattering of Latin) to help their memories to retain what they have scatteringly gotten here and there, to furnish them with many words, which (perhaps) they had not formerly read, or so well observed; but to young children (whom we have chiefly to instruct) as those that are ignorant altogether of things and words, and prove rather a meer toil and burthen, than a delight and furtherance.

For to pack up many words in memory, of things not conceived in the mind, is to fill the head with empty imaginations, and to make the learner more xxi to admire the multitude and variety (and thereby, to become discouraged,) than to care to treasure them up, in hopes to gain more knowledge of what they mean.

He hath therefore in some of his latter works seemed to move retrograde, and striven to come nearer the reach of tender wits: and in this present Book, he hath, according to my judgment, descended to the very bottom of what is to be taught, and proceeded (as nature it self doth) in an orderly way; first to exercise the senses well, by representing their objects to them, and then to fasten upon the intellect by impressing the first notions of things upon it, and linking them on to another by a rational discourse. Whereas indeed, we, generally missing this way, do teach children as we do parrots, to speak they know not what, nay which is worse, we, taking the way of teaching little ones by Grammar only at the first, do puzzle their imaginations with abstractive terms and secondary intentions, which till they be somewhat acquainted with things, and the words belonging to them, in the language which they learn, they cannot apprehend what they mean. And this I guess to be the reason, why many great persons do resolve sometimes not to put a child to school till he be at least eleven or twelve years of age, presuming that he having then taken notice of most things, will sooner get the knowledge of the words which are applyed to them in any language. But the gross misdemeanor of such children for the most part, have taught many parents to be hasty enough to send their own to school, if not that they may learn, yet (at least) that they might be kept out xxii of harm’s way; and yet if they do not profit for the time they have been at school, (no respect at all being had for their years) the Master shall be sure enough to bear the blame.

So that a School-master had need to bend his wits to come within the compass of a child’s capacity of six or seven years of age (seeing we have now such commonly brought to our Grammar-schools to learn the Latin Tongue) and to make that they may learn with as much delight and willingness, as himself would teach with dexterity and ease. And at present I know no better help to forward his young scholars than this little Book, which was for this purpose contrived by the Author in the German and Latin Tongues.

What profitable use may be had thereof, respecting chiefly that his own country and language, he himself hath told you in his preface; but what use we may here make of it in our Grammar-schools, as it is now translated into English, I shall partly declare; leaving all other men, according to my wont, to their own discretion and liberty, to use or refuse it, as they please. So soon then as a child can read English perfectly, and is brought to us to school to learn Latin, I would have him together with his Accidence, to be provided of this Book, in which he may at least once a day (beside his Accidence) be thus exercised.

I. Let him look over the pictures with their general titles and inscriptions, till he be able to turn readily to any one of them, and to tell its name either in English or Latin. By this means he shall xxiii have the method of the Book in his head; and be easily furnished with the knowledge of most things; and instructed how to call them, when at any time he meeteth with them elsewhere, in their real forms.

II. Let him read the description at large: First in English, and afterward in Latin, till he can readily read, and distinctly pronounce the words in both Languages, ever minding how they are spelled. And withal, let him take notice of the figures inserted, and to what part of the picture they direct by their like till he be well able to find out every particular thing of himself, and to name it on a sudden, either in English or Latin. Thus he shall not only gain the most primitive words, but be understandingly grounded in Orthography, which is a thing too generally neglected by us; partly because our English schools think that children should learn it at the Latin, and our Latin schools suppose they have already learn’d it at the English; partly, because our common Grammar is too much defective in this part, and scholars so little exercised therein, that they pass from schools to the Universities and return from thence (some of them) more unable to write true English, than either Latin or Greek. Not to speak of our ordinary Tradesmen, many of whom write such false English, that none but themselves can interpret what they scribble in their bills and shop-books.

III. Then let him get the Titles and Descriptions by heart, which he will more easily do, by reason of these impressions which the viewing of the pictures hath already made in his memory. And now let him also learn, 1. To construe, or give the words one by xxiv one, as they answer one another in Latin and English. 2. To Parse, according to the rules, (which I presume by this time) he hath learn’d in the first part of his Accidence; where I would have him tell what part of Speech any word is, and then what accidents belong to it; but especially to decline the nouns and conjugate the verbs according to the Examples in his Rudiments; and this doing will enable him to know the end and use of his Accidence. As for the Rules of Genders of Nouns, and the Præter-perfect-tenses and Supines of Verbs, and those of Concordance and Construction in the latter part of the Accidence, I would not have a child much troubled with them, till by the help of this Book he can perfectly practise so much of Etymology, as concerns the first part of his Accidence only. For that, and this book together, being thoroughly learn’d by at least thrice going them over, will much prepare children to go chearfully forward in their Grammar and School-Authors, especially, if whilst they are employed herein, they be taught also to write a fair and legible hand.

There is one thing to be given notice of, which I wish could have been remedied in this Translation; that the Book being writ in high-Dutch doth express many things in reference to that Country and Speech, which cannot without alteration of some Pictures as well as words be expressed in ours: for the Symbolical Alphabet is fitted for German children rather than for ours. And whereas the words of that Language go orderly one for one with the Latin, our English propriety of Speech will not admit the like. Therefore it will behove those Masters that intend xxv to make use of this Book, to construe it verbatim to their young Scholars, who will quickly learn to do it of themselves, after they be once acquainted with the first words of Nouns, and Verbs, and their manner of variation.

Such a work as this, I observe to have been formerly much desired by some experienced Teachers, and I my self had some years since (whilst my own Child lived) begun the like, having found it most agreeable to the best witted Children, who are most taken up with Pictures from their Infancy, because by them the knowledge of things which they seem to represent (and whereof Children are as yet ignorant) are most easily conveyed to the Understanding. But for as much as the work is now done, though in some things not so completely as it were to be wished, I rejoyce in the use of it, and desist in my own undertakings for the present. And because any good thing is the better, being the more communicated; I have herein imitated a Child who is forward to impart to others what himself has well liked. You then that have the care of little Children, do not much trouble their thoughts and clog their memories with bare Grammar Rudiments, which to them are harsh in getting, and fluid in retaining; because indeed to them they signifie nothing, but a mere swimming notion of a general term, which they know not what it meaneth, till they comprehend particulars, but by this or the like subsidiary, inform them, first with some knowledge of things and words wherewith to express them, and then their Rules of speaking will be better understood and more firmly kept in mind. Else how should a Child conceive what a Rule meaneth, xxvi when he neither knoweth what the Latin word importeth, nor what manner of thing it is which is signified to him in his own native Language, which is given him thereby to understand the Rule? For Rules consisting of generalities, are delivered (as I may say) at a third hand, presuming first the things, and then the words to be already apprehended touching which they are made. I might indeed enlarge upon this Subject, it being the very Basis of our Profession, to search into the way of Childrens taking hold by little and little of what we teach them, that so we may apply ourselves to their reach: But I leave the observation thereof to your own daily exercise, and experience got thereby.

And I pray God, the fountain and giver of all wisdom, that hath bestowed upon us this gift of Teaching, so to inspire and direct us by his Grace, that we may train up Children in his Fear and in the knowledge of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord; and then no doubt our teaching and their learning of other things subordinate to these, will by the assistance of his blessed Spirit make them able and willing to do him faithful Service both in Church and Commonwealth, as long as they live here, that so they may be eternally blessed with him hereafter. This, I beseech you, beg for me and mine, as I shall daily do for you and yours, at the throne of God’s heavenly grace; and remain while I live

Ready to serve you, as I truly love and honour you, and labour willingly in the same Profession with you,


From my School, in

Lothbury, London, Jan. 25, 1658.



N.B. Those Heads or Descriptions which concern things beyond the present apprehension of Children’s wits, as, those of Geography, Astronomy, or the like, I would have omitted, till the rest be learned, and a Child be better able to understand them.

The Judgment of Mr. Hezekiah Woodward, sometimes an eminent Schoolmaster in LONDON, touching a work of this Nature; in his Gate to Science, chap. 2.

Certainly the use of Images or Representations is great: If we could make our words as legible to Children as Pictures are, their information therefrom would be quickned and surer. But so we cannot do, though we must do what we can. And if we had Books, wherein are the Pictures of all Creatures, Herbs, Beasts, Fish, Fowls, they would stand us in great stead. For Pictures are the most intelligible Books that Children can look upon. They come closest to Nature, nay, saith Scaliger, Art exceeds her.


As there are some considerable Alterations in the present Edition of this Book from the former, it may be expected an Account should be given of the Reasons for them. ’Tis certain from the Author’s Words, that when it was first published, which was in Latin and Hungary, or in Latin and High-Dutch; every where one word answer’d to another over-against it: This might have been observ’d in our English Translation, which wou’d have fully answer’d the design of COMENIUS, and have made the Book much more useful: But Mr. Hoole, (whether out of too much scrupulousness to disturb the Words in some places from the order they were in, or not sufficiently considering the Inconveniences of having the Latin and English so far asunder) has made them so much disagree, that a Boy has sometimes to seek 7 or 8 lines off for the corresponding Word; which is no small trouble to Young Learners who are at first equally unacquainted with all Words, in a Language they are strangers to, except it be such as have Figures of Reference, or are very like in sound; and thus may perhaps, innocently enough join an Adverb in one Tongue, to a Noun in the other; whence may xxix appear the Necessity of the Translation’s being exactly literal, and the two Languages fairly answering one another, Line for Line.

If it be objected, such a thing cou’d not be done (considering the difference of the Idioms) without transplacing Words here and there, and putting them into an order which may not perhaps be exactly classical; it ought to be observed, this is design’d for Boys chiefly, or those who are just entering upon the Latin Tongue, to whom every thing ought to be made as plain and familiar as possible, who are not, at their first beginning, to be taught the elegant placing of Latin, nor from such short Sentences as these, but from Discourses where the Periods have a fuller Close. Besides, this way has already taken (according to the Advice of very good Judges,) in some other School-Books of Mr. Hoole’s translating, and found to succeed abundantly well.

Such Condescensions as these, to the capacities of young Learners are certainly very reasonable, and wou’d be most agreeable to the Intentions of the Ingenious and worthy Author, and his design to suit whatever he taught, to their manner of apprehending it. Whose Excellency in the art of Education made him so famous all over Europe, as to be solicited by several States and Princes to go and reform the Method of their Schools; and whose works carried that Esteem, that in his own Life-time some part of them were not only translated into 12 of the usual Languages of Europe, but also into the Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Mogolic (the common Tongue of all that part of the East-Indies) and since his death, into xxx the Hebrew, and some others. Nor did they want their due Encouragement here in England, some Years ago; ’till by an indiscreet use of them, and want of a thorow acquaintance with his Method, or unwillingness to part from their old road, they began to be almost quite left off: Yet it were heartily to be wish’d, some Persons of Judgment and Interest, whose Example might have an influence upon others, and bring them into Reputation again, wou’d revive the COMENIAN METHOD, which is no other, than to make our Scholars learn with Delight and chearfulness, and to convey a solid and useful Knowledge of Things, with that of Languages, in an easy, natural and familiar way. Didactic Works (as they are now collected into one volume) for a speedy attaining the Knowledge of Things and Words, join’d with the Discourses of Mr. Lock* and 2 or 3 more out of our own Nation, for forming the Mind and settling good Habits, may doubtless be look’d upon to contain the most reasonable, orderly, and completed System of the Art of Education, that can be met with.

Yet, alas! how few are there, who follow the way they have pointed out? tho’ every one who seriously considers it, must be convinc’d of the Advantage; and the generality of Schools go on in the same old dull road, wherein a great part of Children’s time is lost in a tiresome heaping up a Pack of dry and unprofitable, or pernicious Notions (for surely little xxxi better can be said of a great part of that Heathenish stuff they are tormented with; like the feeding them with hard Nuts, which when they have almost broke their teeth with cracking, they find either deaf or to contain but very rotten and unwholesome Kernels) whilst Things really perfected of the understanding, and useful in every state of Life, are left unregarded, to the Reproach of our Nation, where all other Arts are improved and flourish well, only this of Education of Youth is at a stand; as if that, the good or ill management of which is of the utmost consequence to all, were a thing not worth any Endeavors to improve it, or was already so perfect and well executed that it needed none, when many of the greatest Wisdom and Judgment in several Nations, have with a just indignation endeavor’d to expose it, and to establish a more easy and useful way in its room.

’Tis not easy to say little on so important a subject, but thus much may suffice for the present purpose. The Book has merit enough to recommend it self to those who know how to make a right use of it. It was reckon’d one of the Author’s best performances; and besides the many Impressions and Translations it has had in parts beyond Sea, has been several times reprinted here. It was endeavor’d no needless Alterations shou’d be admitted in this Edition, and as little of any as cou’d consist with the design of making it plain and useful; to shun the offence it might give to some; and only the Roman and Italic Character alternately made use of, where transplacing of Words cou’d be avoided.

J. H.

July 13, 1727.

* Mr. Lock’s Essay upon Education.
Dr. Tabor’s Christian Schoolmaster.
Dr. Ob. Walker of Education.
Mr. Monro’s Essay on Education.
—His just Measures of the pious Institutions of Youth, &c.


Orbis Sensualium Pictus,

A World of Things Obvious to the
Senses drawn in Pictures.




Chapter 1

The Master and the Boy. Magister & Puer.
M. Come, Boy, learn to be wise. M. Veni, Puer, disce sapere.
P. What doth this mean, to be wise? P. Quid hoc est, Sapere?
M. To understand rightly,
2 to do rightly,
and to speak out rightly
all that are necessary.
M. Intelligere recte,
agere recte,
et eloqui recte
omnia necessaria.
P. Who will teach me this? P. Quis docebit me hoc?
M. I, by God’s help. M. Ego, cum DEO.
P. How? P. Quomodo?
M. I will guide thee thorow all. M. Ducam te per omnia.
I will shew thee all. Ostendam tibi omnia.
I will name thee all. Nominabo tibi omnia.
P. See, here I am;
lead me in the name of God.
P. En, adsum;
duc me in nomine DEI.
M. Before all things,
thou oughtest to learn
the plain sounds,
of which man’s speech
which living creatures
know how to make,
and thy Tongue knoweth how
to imitate, and thy hand
can picture out.
M. Ante omnia,
debes discere
simplices Sonos
ex quibus Sermo humanus
quos Animalia
sciunt formare,
& tua Lingua scit
imitari, & tua Manus
potest pingere.
Afterwards we will go
into the World,
and we will view all things.
Postea ibimus
& spectabimus omnia.
Here thou hast a lively
and Vocal Alphabet.
Hic habes vivum
et vocale Alphabetum.

All pictures A-M, N-Z

Crow Cornix cornicatur, à à
The Crow crieth.
A a
Lamb Agnus balat, b è è è
The Lamb blaiteth.
B b
Grasshopper Cicàda stridet, cì cì
The Grasshopper chirpeth.
C c
Hoopoe (Whooppoo) Upupa dicit, du du
The Whooppoo saith.
D d
Infant Infans ejulat, è è è
The Infant crieth.
E e
Wind Ventus flat, fi fi
The Wind bloweth.
F f
Goose Anser gingrit, ga ga
The Goose gagleth.
G g
Mouth Os halat, hà’h hà’h
The Mouth breatheth.
H h
Mouse Mus mintrit, ì ì ì
The Mouse chirpeth.
I i
Duck Anas tetrinnit, kha, kha
The Duck quaketh.
K k
Wolf Lupus ululat, lu ulu
The Wolf howleth.
Bear Ursus murmurat, mum mum
The Bear grumbleth.
M m
4 Cat Felis clamat, nau nau
The Cat crieth.
N n
Carter Auriga clamat, ò ò ò
The Carter crieth.
O o
Chicken Pullus pipit, pi pi
The Chicken peepeth.
P p
Cuckoo Cúculus cuculat, kuk ku
The cuckow singeth.
Q q
Dog Canis ringitur, err
The dog grinneth.
R r
Serpens Serpens sibilat, si
The Serpent hisseth.
S s
Jay Graculus clamat, tac tac
The Jay crieth.
T t
Owl Bubo ululat, ù ù
The Owl hooteth.
U u
Hare Lepus vagit, va
The Hare squeaketh.
W w
Frog Rana coaxat, coax
The Frog croaketh.
X x
Ass Asinus rudit, y y y
The Asse brayeth.
Y y
Horsefly Tabanus dicit, ds ds
The Breeze or Horse-flie saith.
Z z




Chapter 2

God is of himself
from everlasting to everlasting.
Deus est ex seipso,
ab æterno in æternum.
A most perfect
and a most blessed Being.
& beatissimum Ens.
In his Essence Spiritual,
and One.
Essentiâ Spiritualis
& unus.
In his Personality, Three. Hypostasi Trinus.
In his Will, Holy, Just,
Merciful and True.
Voluntate, Sanctus, Justus,
Clemens, Verax.
In his Power very great. Potentiâ maximus.
In his Goodness, very good. Bonitate Optimus.
In his Wisdom, unmeasurable. Sapientiâ, immensus.
A Light inaccessible;
and yet all in all.
Lux inaccessa;
& tamen omnia in omnibus.
Every where, and no where. Ubique & nullibi.
6 The chiefest Good, and
the only and inexhausted
Fountain of all good things.
Summum Bonum, et
solus et inexhaustus
Fons omnium Bonorum.
As the Creator, so the
Governour and Preserver
of all things, which we call
the World.
Ut Creator, ita
Gubernator et Conservator
omnium rerum, quas vocamus


The World.


Chapter 3

The Heaven, 1.
hath Fire, and Stars.
Cœlum, 1.
habet Ignem & Stellas.
The Clouds, 2.
hang in the Air.
Nubes, 2.
pendent in Aere.
Birds, 3.
fly under the Clouds.
Aves, 3.
volant sub nubibus.
Fishes, 4.
swim in the Water.
Pisces, 4.
natant in Aqua.
The Earth hath Hills, 5.
Woods, 6. Fields, 7.
Beasts, 8. and Men, 9.
Terra habet Montes, 5.
Sylvas, 6. Campos, 7.
Animalia, 8. Homines, 9.
7 Thus the greatest Bodies
of the World,
the four Elements,
are full of
their own Inhabitants.
Ita maxima Corpora
quatuor Elementa,
sunt plena
Habitatoribus suis.


The Heaven.


Chapter 4

The Heaven, 1.
is wheeled about, and
encompasseth the Earth, 2.
standing in the middle.
Cœlum, 1.
rotatur, &
ambit Terram, 2.
stantem in medio.
The Sun, 3.
wheresoever it is,
shineth perpetually,
howsoever dark Clouds, 4.
may take it from us;
and causeth by his Rays, 5.
Light, and the Light, Day.
Sol, 3.
ubi ubi est,
fulget perpetuo,
ut ut densa Nubila, 4.
eripiant eum a nobis;
facitque suis Radiis, 5.
Lucem, Lux Diem.
On the other side,
over against it,
is Darkness, 6.
and thence Night.
Ex opposito,
sunt Tenebræ, 6.
inde Nox.
8 In the Night
shineth the Moon, 7.
and the Stars, 8.
glister and twinkle.
splendet Luna, 7.
& Stellæ, 8.
micant, scintillant.
In the Evening, 9.
is Twilight:
Vesperi, 9.
est Crepusculum:
In the Morning, 10.
the breaking,
and dawning of the Day.
Aurora, 10.
& Diluculum.




Chapter 5

The Fire gloweth, burneth
and consumeth to ashes.
Ignis ardet, urit,
A spark of it struck out
of a Flint (or Firestone), 2.
by means of a Steel, 1.
and taken by Tynder
in a Tynder-box, 3.
lighteth a Match, 4.
and after that a Candle, 5.
9 or stick, 6.
and causeth a flame, 7.
or blaze, 8.
which catcheth hold of
the Houses.
Scintilla ejus elisa
e Silice, (Pyrite) 2.
Ope Chalybis, 1.
et excepta a Fomite
in Suscitabulo, 3.
accendit Sulphuratum, 4.
et inde Candelam, 5.
vel Lignum, 6.
et excitat Flammam, 7.
vel Incendium, 8.
quod corripit
Smoak, 9.
ascendeth therefrom,
which, sticking to
the Chimney, 10.
turneth into Soot.
Fumus, 9.
ascendit inde,
qui, adhærans
Camino, 10.
abit in Fuliginem.
Of a Fire-brand,
(or burning stick)
is made a Brand, 11.
(or quenched stick).
Ex Torre,
(ligno ardente,)
fit Titio, 11.
(lignum extinctum.)
Of a hot Coal
(red hot piece
of a Fire-brand)
is made a Coal, 12.
(or a dead Cinder).
Ex Pruna,
(candente particulâ
fit Carbo, 12.
(Particula mortua.)
That which remaineth,
is at last Ashes, 13.
and Embers (or hot Ashes).
Quod remanet,
tandem est Cinis, 13.
& Favilla (ardens Cinis.)


The Air.


Chapter 6

A cool Air, 1.
breatheth gently.
Aura, 1.
spirat leniter.
The Wind, 2.
bloweth strongly.
Ventus, 2.
flat valide.
A Storm, 3.
throweth down Trees.
Procella, 3.
sternit Arbores.
A Whirl-wind, 4.
turneth it self
in a round compass.
Turbo, 4.
agit se
in gyrum.
A Wind under Ground, 5.
causeth an Earthquake.
Ventus subterraneus, 5.
excitat Terræ motum.
An Earthquake causeth
gapings of the Earth,
(and falls of Houses.) 6.
Terræ motus facit
Labes (& ruinas.) 6.


The Water.


Chapter 7

The Water springeth
out of a Fountain, 1.
floweth downwards
in a Brook, 2.
runneth in a Beck, 3.
standeth in a Pond, 4.
glideth in a Stream, 5.
is whirled about
in a Whirl-pit, 6.
and causeth Fens, 7.
Aqua scatet
è Fonte, 1.
in Torrente, 2.
manat in Rivo, 3.
stat in Stagno, 4.
fluit in Flumine, 5.
in Vortice, 6.
& facit Paludes, 7.
The River hath Banks, 8. Flumen habet Ripas.   
The Sea maketh Shores, 9.
Bays, 10. Capes, 11.
Islands, 12.
Almost Islands, 13.
Necks of Land, 14.
Straights, 15.
and hath in it Rocks, 16.
Mare facit Littora, 9.
Sìnus, 10. Promontoria, 11.
Insulas, 12.
Peninsulas, 13.
Isthmos, 14.
Freta, 15.
& habet Scopulos, 16.


The Clouds.


Chapter 8

A Vapour, 1. ascendeth
from the Water.
Vapor, 1. ascendit
ex Aquâ.
From it a Cloud, 2.
is made, and a white Mist, 3.
near the Earth.
Inde Nubes, 2.
fit, et Nebula, 3.
prope terram.
Rain, 4.
and a small Shower
distilleth out of a Cloud,
drop by drop.
Pluvia, 4.
et Imber,
stillat e Nube,
Which being frozen, is Hail, 5.
half frozen is Snow, 6.
being warm is Mel-dew.
Quæ gelata, Grando, 5.
semigelata, Nix, 6.
calefacta, Rubigo est.
In a rainy Cloud,
set over against the Sun
the Rainbow, 7. appeareth.
In nube pluviosâ,
oppositâ soli
Iris, 7. apparet.
A drop falling into the water
maketh a Bubble, 8.
many Bubbles make
froth, 9.
Gutta incidens in aquam,
facit Bullam, 8.
multæ Bullæ faciunt
spumam, 9.
Frozen Water
is called Ice, 10.
Dew congealed,
13 is called a white Frost.
Aqua congelata
Glacies, 10.
Ros congelatus,
dicitur Pruina.
Thunder is made of
a brimstone-like vapour,
which breaking out of a Cloud,
with Lightning, 11.
thundereth and
striketh with lightning.
Tonitru fit ex
Vapore sulphureo,
quod erumpens è Nube
cum Fulgure, 11.
tonat &


The Earth.


Chapter 9

In the Earth
are high Mountains, 1.
Deep Vallies, 2.
Hills rising, 3.
Hollow Caves, 4.
Plain Fields, 5.
Shady Woods, 6.
In Terra
sunt Alti Montes, 1.
Profundæ valles, 2.
Elevati Colles, 3.
cavæ Speluncæ, 4.
Plani campi, 5.
Opacæ Sylvæ, 6.


The Fruits of the Earth.

Terræ Fœtus.

Chapter 10

A meadow,
1. yieldeth grass
with Flowers and Herbs,
which being cut down,
are made Hay, 2.
Pratum, 1.
fert Gramina,
cum Floribus & Herbis
quæ defecta
fiunt Fænum, 2.
A Field, 3. yieldeth Corn,
and Pot-herbs, 4.
Arvum, 3. fert Fruges,
& Olera, 4.
Mushrooms, 5.
Straw-berries, 6.
Myrtle-trees, &c.
come up in Woods.
Fungi, 5.
Fraga, 6.
Myrtilli, &c.
Proveniunt in Sylvis.
Metals, Stones, and
grow under the earth.
Metalla, Lapides,
nascuntur sub terra.




Chapter 11

Lead, 1.
is soft, and heavy.
Plumbum, 1.
est molle & grave.
Iron, 2. is hard,
and Steel, 3. harder.
Ferrum, 2. est durum,
& Calybs, 3. durior.
They make Tankards
(or Cans), 4. of Tin.
Faciunt Cantharos, 4.
e Stanno.
Kettles, 5. of Copper, Ahena, 5, e Cupro,
Candlesticks, 6. of Latin, Candelabra, 6. ex Orichalco,
Dollers, 7. of Silver, Thaleros, 7. ex Argento,
Ducats and Crown-pieces, 8.
of Gold.
Scutatos et Coronatos, 8.
Ex, Auro.
is always liquid,
and eateth thorow Metals.
Argentum Vivum,
semper liquet,
& corrodit Metalla.




Chapter 12

Sand, 1. and Gravel, 2.
is Stone broken into bits.
Arena, 1. & Sabulum, 2.
est Lapis comminutus.
A great Stone, 3.
is a piece of
a Rock (or Crag) 4.
Saxum, 3.
est pars
Petræ (Cautis) 4.
A Whetstone, 5.
a Flint, 6. a Marble, 7. &c.
are ordinary Stones.
Cos, 5.
Silex, 6. Marmor, 7. &c.
sunt obscuri Lapides.
A Load-stone, 8.
draweth Iron to it.
Magnes, 8.
adtrahit ferrum.
Jewels, 9.
are clear Stones, as
Gemmæ, 9.
sunt pellucidi Lapilli,
The Diamond white ut Adamas candidus,
The Ruby red, Rubinus rubeus,
The Sapphire blue, Sapphirus cæruleus,
The Emerald green, Smaragdus viridis,
The Jacinth yellow, &c. Hyacynthus luteus, &c.
And they glister
being cut into corners.
et micant
Pearls and Unions, 10.
grow in Shell-fish.
Margaritæ & Uniones, 10.
crescunt in Conchis.
17 Corals, 11.
in a Sea-shrub.
Corallia, 11.
in Marinâ arbusculâ.
Amber, 12. is gathered
from the Sea.
Succinum, 12. colligitur
è mari.
Glass, 13, is like
Vitrum, 13. simile est




Chapter 13

A Plant, 1. groweth
from a Seed.
Planta, 1. procrescit
e Semine.
A plant waxeth
to a Shoot, 2.
Planta abit
in Fruticem, 2.
A Shoot to a Tree, 3. Frutex in Arborem, 3.
The Root, 4.
beareth up the Tree.
Radix, 4.
Sustentat arborem.
The Body or Stem, 5.
riseth from the Root.
Stirps (Stemma) 5.
Surgit e radice.
The Stem divideth it self
into Boughs, 6.
and green Branches, 7.
made of Leaves, 8.
Stirps se dividit
in Ramos, 6.
& Frondes, 7.
factas e Foliis, 8.
18 The top, 9.
is in the height.
Cacumen, 9.
est in summo.
The Stock, 10.
is close to the roots.
Truncus, 10.
adhærat radicibus.
A Log, 11.
is the body fell’d down
without Boughs; having
Bark and Rind, 12.
Pith and Heart, 13.
Caudex, 11.
est Stipes dejectus,
sine ramis; habens
Corticem & Librum, 12.
pulpam & medullam, 13.
Bird-lime, 14.
groweth upon the boughs,
which also sweat
Pitch, &c.
Viscum, 14.
adnascitur ramis,
qui etiam sudant,
Picem, &c.


Fruits of Trees.

Fructus Arborum.

Chapter 14

Fruits that have no shells
are pull’d from
fruit-bearing trees.
decerpuntur, a
fructiferis arboribus.
The Apple, 1. is round. Malum, 1. est rotundum.
19 The Pear, 2. and Fig, 3.
are something long.
Pyrum, 2. & Ficus, 3.
sunt oblonga.
The Cherry, 4.
hangeth by a long start.
Cerasum, 4.
pendet longo Pediolo.
The Plumb, 5.
and Peach, 6.
by a shorter.
Prunum, 5.
& Persicum, 6.
The Mulberry, 7.
by a very short one.
Morum, 7.
The Wall-nut, 8.
the Hazel-nut, 9.
and Chest-nut, 10.
are wrapped in a husk
and a Shell.
Nux Juglans, 8.
Avellana, 9.
& Castanea, 10.
involuta sunt Cortici
& Putamini.
Barren trees are 11.
The Firr, the Alder,
The Birch, the Cypress,
The Beech, the Ash,
The Sallow, the Linden-tree,
&c., but most of them
affording shade.
Steriles arbores sunt 11.
Abies, Alnus,
Betula, Cupressus,
Fagus, Fraxinus,
Salix, Tilia,
&c. sed pleræque
But the Juniper, 12.
and Bay-tree, 13.
yield Berries.
At Juniperus, 12.
& Laurus, 13.
ferunt Baccas.
The Pine, 14. Pine-apples. Pinus, 14. Strobilos.
The Oak, 15.
Acorns and Galls.
Quercus, 15.
Glandes & Gallas.




Chapter 15

Amongst the Flowers
the most noted,
Inter flores
In the beginning
of the Spring are
the Violet, 1. the Crow-toes, 2.
the Daffodil, 3.
Primo vere,
Viola, 1. Hyacinthus, 2.
Narcissus, 3.
Then the Lillies, 4.
white and yellow
and blew, 5.
and the Rose, 6. and the
Clove-gilliflowers, 7. &c.
Tum Lilia, 4.
alba & lutea,
& cœrulea, 5.
tandem Rosa, 6. &
Caryophillum, 7. &c.
Of these Garlands, 8.
and Nosegays, 9.
are tyed round with twigs.
Ex his Serta, 8.
& Serviæ, 9.
There are added also
sweet herbs, 10.
as Marjoram,
Flower gentle, Rue,
21 Hysop, Spike,
Basil, Sage,
Mints, &c.
Adduntur etiam
Herbæ odoratæ, 10.
ut Amaracus,
Amaranthus, Ruta,
Rosmarinus, (Libanotis).
Hypossus, Nard,
Ocymum, Salvia,
Menta, &c.
Amongst Field-flowers, 11.
the most noted are
the May-lillie,
Germander, the Blew-Bottle,
Chamomel, &c.
Inter Campestres Flores, 11.
notissimi sunt
Lilium Convallium,
Chamædrys, Cyanus,
Chamæmelum, &c.
And amongst Herbs,
Wormwood, Sorrel,
the Nettle, &c.
Et Herbæ,
Cytisus (Trifolium)  
Absinthium, Acetosa,
Urtica, &c.
The Tulip, 12.
is the grace of flowers,
but affording no smell.
Tulipa, 12.
est decus Florum,
sed expers odoris.




Chapter 16

grow in Gardens,
as Lettice, 1.
Colewort, 2.
Onions, 3. 22 Garlick, 4.
Gourd, 5.
The Parsnep, 6.
The Turnep, 7.
The Radish, 8.
Horse-radish, 9.
Parsly, 10.
Cucumbers, 11.
and Pompions, 12.
nascuntur in hortis,
ut Lactuca, 1.
Brassica, 2.
Cepa, 3. Allium, 4.
Cucurbita, 5.
Siser, 6.
Rapa, 7.
Raphanus minor, 8.
Raphanus major, 9.
Petroselinum, 10.
Cucumeres, 11.
Pepones, 12.




Chapter 17

Some Corn grows
upon a straw,
parted by knots,
as Wheat, 1.
Rie, 2, Barley, 3.
in which the Ear hath awnes,
or else it is without awnes,
and it nourisheth the Corn
in the Husk.
Frumenta quædam crescunt
super culmum,
distinctum geniculis,
ut, Triticum, 1.
Siligo, 2. Hordeum, 3.
in quibus Spica habet Aristas,
aut est mutica,
fovetque grana
in gluma.
Some instead of an ear,
have a rizom (or plume)
containing the corn
by bunches,
as Oats, 4. Millet, 5.
Turkey-wheat, 6.
Quædam pro Spica,
habent Paniculam,
continentem grana
ut, Avena, 4. Milium, 5.
Frumentum Saracenicum, 6.
23 Pulse have Cods,
which enclose the corns
in two Shales,
as Pease, 7.
Beans, 8. Vetches, 9. and
those that are less than these
Lentils and Urles
(or Tares).
Legumina habent Siliquas,
quæ includunt grana
ut, Pisum, 7.
Fabæ, 8. Vicia, 9. &
minores his
Lentes & Cicera.




Chapter 18

A plant being greater,
and harder than an herb,
is called a Shrub:
such as are
Planta major
& durior herba,
dicitur Frutex:
ut sunt
In Banks and Ponds,
the Rush, 1.
the Bulrush, 2.
or Cane without knots
bearing Cats-tails,
and the Reed, 3.
which is knotty and hollow
In ripis & stagnis,
Juncus, 1.
Scirpus, 2.
[Canna] enodis
ferens Typhos,
& Arundo, 3.
nodosa et cava
Elsewhere, 4. 24 the Rose,
the Bastard-Corinths,
the Elder, the Juniper.
Alibi, 4. Rosa,
Sambucus, Juniperus
Also the Vine, 5. which
putteth forth branches, 6.
and these tendrels, 7.
Vine-leaves, 8.
and Bunches of grapes, 9.
on the stock whereof
hang Grapes,
which contain Grape-stones.
Item Vitis, 5. quæ
emittit Palmites, 6.
et hi Capreolos, 7.
Pampinos, 8.
et Racemos, 9.
quorum Scapo
pendent Uvæ,
continentes Acinos.


Living-Creatures: and First, Birds.

Animalia: & primum, Aves

Chapter 19

A living Creature liveth,
perceiveth, moveth it self;
is born, dieth,
is nourished, and groweth:
standeth, or sitteth,
or lieth, or goeth.
Animal vivit,
sentit, movet se;
nascitur, moritur,
nutritur, & crescit;
stat, aut sedet,
aut cubat, aut graditur.
25 A Bird,
(here the King’s Fisher, 1.*
making her nest in the Sea.)
is covered with Feathers, 2.
flyeth with Wings, 3.
hath two Pinions, 4.
as many Feet, 5.
a Tail, 6.
and a Bill, 7.
(hic Halcyon, 1.
in mari nidulans.)
tegitur Plumis, 2.
volat Pennis, 3.
habet duas Alas, 4.
totidem Pedes, 5.
Caudam, 6.
& Rostrum, 7.
The Shee, 8.
layeth Eggs, 10.
in a nest, 9.
and sitting upon them,
hatcheth young ones, 11.
Fæmella, 8.
ponit Ova, 10.
in nido, 9.
et incubans iis,
excludit Pullos, 11.
An Egg is cover’d
with a Shell, 12.
under which is
the White, 13.
in this the Yolk, 14.
Ovum tegitur
testa, 12.
sub qua est
Albumen, 13.
in hoc Vitellus, 14.


Tame Fowls.

Aves Domesticæ.

Chapter 20

The Cock, 1. (which
croweth in the Morning.)
26 hath a Comb, 2.
and Spurs, 3.
being gelded, he is called
a Capon, and is crammed
in a Coop, 4.
Gallus, 1. (qui
cantat mane.)
habet Cristam, 2.
& Calcaria, 3.
castratus dicitur
Capo & saginatur
in Ornithotrophico, 4.
A Hen, 5.
scrapeth the Dunghil,
and picketh up Corns:
as also the Pigeons, 6.
(which are brought up in
a Pigeon-house, 7.)
and the Turkey-cock, 8.
with his Turkey-hen, 9.
Gallina, 5.
ruspatur fimetum,
& colligit grana:
sicut & Columbæ, 6,
(quæ educantur in
Columbario, 7.)
& Gallopavus, 8.
cum sua Meleagride, 9.
The gay Peacock, 10.
prideth in his Feathers.
Formosus Pavo, 10.
superbit pennis.
The Stork, 11.
buildeth her nest
on the top of the House.
Ciconia, 11.
in tecto.
The Swallow, 12.
the Sparrow, 13.
the Mag-pie, 14.
the Jackdaw, 15.
and the Bat, 16.
(or Flettermouse)
use to flie about Houses.
Hirundo, 12.
Passer, 13.
Pica, 14.
Monedula, 15.
& Vespertilio, 16.
(Mus alatus)
volitant circa Domus.




Chapter 21

The Nightingal, 1.
singeth the sweetlyest of all.
Luscinia (Philomela), 1.
cantat suavissime omnium.
The Lark, 2. singeth
as she flyeth in the Air.
Alauda, 2. cantillat
volitans in aere;
The Quail, 3.
sitting on the ground;
Coturnix, 3.
sedens humi;
others on the boughs of trees, 4.
as the Canary-bird,
the Chaffinch,
the Goldfinch,
the Siskin,
the Linnet,
the little Titmouse,
the Wood-wall,
the Robin-red-breast,
the Hedge-sparrow, &c.
Cæteræ, in ramis arborum, 4.
ut Luteola peregrina
parvus Parus,
Curruca, &c.
The party colour’d Parret, 5.
the Black-bird, 6.
the Stare, 7.
with the Mag-pie
and the Jay, learn
28 to frame men’s words.
Discolor Psittacus, 5.
Merula, 6.
Sturnus, 7.
cum Pica,
& Monedula, discunt
humanas voces formare   
A great many are wont
to be shut in Cages, 8.
Pleræque solent
includi Caveis, 8.


Birds that haunt the Fields and Woods.

Aves Campestres & Sylvestres

Chapter 22

The Ostrich, 1.
is the greatest Bird.
Struthio, 1.
ales est maximus.
The Wren, 2.
is the least.
Regulus, 2. (Trochilus)
The Owl, 3.
is the most despicable.
Noctua, 3.
The Whoopoo, 4.
is the most nasty,
for it eateth dung.
Upupa, 4.
vescitur enim stercoribus.
The Bird of Paradise, 5.
is very rare.
Manucodiata, 5.
The Pheasant, 6.
the Bustard, 7.
29 the deaf wild Peacock, 8.
the Moor-hen, 9.
the Partrige, 10.
the Woodcock, 11.
and the Thrush, 12.
are counted Dainties.
Phasianus, 6.
Tarda (Otis), 7.
surdus, Tetrao, 8.
Attagen, 9.
Perdix, 10.
Gallinago (Rusticola), 11.
& Turdus, 12,
habentur in deliciis.
Among the rest,
the best are,
the watchful Crane, 13.
the mournful Turtle, 14.
the Cuckow, 15.
the Stock-dove,
the Speight,
the Jay,
the Crow, &c., 16.
Inter reliquas,
potissimæ sunt,
Grus 13. pervigil.
Turtur, 14. gemens.
Cuculus, 15.
Cornix, &c., 16.


Ravenous Birds.

Aves Rapaces.

Chapter 23

The Eagle, 1.
the King of Birds
looketh upon the Sun
Aquila, 1.
Rex Avium,
intuetur Solem.
The Vulture, 2.
and the Raven, 3.
30 feed upon Carrion.
Vultur, 2.
& Corvus, 3.
pascuntur morticinis,
The Kite, 4. pursueth
Milvus, 4. insectatur
pullos gallinaceos.
The Falcon, 5.
the Hobbie, 6.
and the Hawk, 7.
catch at little Birds.
Falco, 5,
Nisus, 6.
& Accipiter, 7.
captant aviculas.
The Gerfalcon, 8. catcheth
Pigeons and greater Birds.
Astur, 8. captat
columbas & aves majores.



Aves Aquaticæ.

Chapter 24

The white Swan, 1.
the Goose, 2.
and the Duck, 3.
swim up and down.
Oler, 1. candidus,
Anser, 2.
& Anas, 3.
The Cormorant, 4
Mergus, 4.
se mergit.
Add to these the water-hen,
and the Pelican, &c., 10.
Adde his Fulicam,
Pelecanum, &c., 10.
31 The Osprey, 5.
and the Sea-mew, 6.
flying downwards
use to catch Fish,
but the Heron, 7.
standing on the Banks.
Haliæetus, 5.
& Gavia, 6.
captant pisces,
sed Ardea, 7.
stans in ripis.
The Bittern, 8. putteth
his Bill in the water, and
belloweth like an Ox.
Butio, 8. inferit
rostrum aquæ, &
mugit ut bos.
The Water-wagtail, 9.
waggeth the tail.
Motacilla, 9.
motat caudam.


Flying Vermin.

Insecta volantia.

Chapter 25

The Bee, 1. maketh honey
which the Drone, 2. devoureth.
Apis, 1. facit mel
quod Fucus, 2. depascit   
The Wasp, 3.
and the Hornet, 4.
molest with a sting;
and the Gad-Bee
(or Breese), 5.
especially Cattel;
32 but the Fly, 6.
and the Gnat, 7. us.
Vespa, 3.
& Crabro, 4.
infestant oculeo;
& Oestrum
(Asilus), 5.
imprimis pecus
autem Musca, 6.
& Culex, 7. nos.
The Cricket, 8. singeth. Gryllus, 8. cantillat.
The Butterfly, 9. is a
winged Caterpillar.
Papillio, 9. est
alata Eruca.
The Beetle, 10. covereth
her wings with Cases.
Scarabæus, 10. tegit
alas vaginis.
The Glow-worm, 11.
shineth by night.
Cicindela [Lampyris], 11.
nitet noctu.


Four-Footed Beasts: and First those about the House.

Quadrupeda: & primum Domestica.

Chapter 26

The Dog, 1.
with the Whelp, 2.
is keeper of the House.
Canis, 1.
cum Catello, 2.
est custos Domûs.
The Cat, 3.
33 riddeth the House
of Mice, 4.
which also
a Mouse-trap, 5. doth.
Felis (Catus) 3.
purgat domum
à Muribus, 4.
quod etiam
Muscipula, 5. facit.
A Squirrel, 6.
The Ape, 7.
and the Monkey, 8.
are kept at home
for delight.
Sciurus, 6.
Simia, 7.
& Cercopithecus, 8.
habentur domi
The Dormouse, 9. and
other greater Mice, 10.
as, the Weesel, the Marten,
and the Ferret,
trouble the House
Glis, 9. &
cæteri Mures majores, 10.
ut, Mustela, Martes,
infestant domum.




Chapter 27

The Bull, 1. the Cow, 2.
and the Calf, 3.
are covered with hair.
Taurus, 1. Vacca, 2.
& Vitulus, 3.
teguntur pilis.
The Ram, the Weather, 4.
the Ewe, 5. and the Lamb, 6.
bear wool.
Aries, Vervex, 4.
Ovis, 5. cum Agno, 6.
gestant lanam.
34 The He-goat, the Gelt-goat, 7.
with the She-goat, 8.
and Kid, 9. have
shag-hair and beards.
Hircus, Caper, 7.
cum Capra, 8.
& Hædo, 9. habent
Villos & aruncos.
The Hog, the Sow, 10.
and the Pigs, 11.
have bristles,
but not horns;
but also cloven feet
as those others (have.)
Porcus, Scrofa, 10.
cum Porcellis, 11.
habent Setas,
at non Cornua;
sed etiam Ungulas bisulcas
ut illa.




Chapter 28

The Ass, 1.
and the Mule, 2.
carry burthens.
Asinus, 1.
& Mulus, 2.
gestant Onera.
The Horse, 3.
(which a Mane, 4. graceth)
carryeth us.
Equus, 3.
(quam Juba, 4. ornat)
gestat nos ipsos.
The Camel, 5.
carryeth the Merchant
with his Ware.
Camelus, 5.
gestat Mercatorem
cum mercibus suis.
35 The Elephant, 6.
draweth his meat to him
with his Trunk, 7.
Elephas, (Barrus) 6.
attrahit pabulum
Proboscide, 7.
He hath two Teeth, 8.
standing out,
and is able to carry
full thirty men.
Habet duos dentes, 8.
& potest portare
etiam triginta viros.



Feræ Pecudes.

Chapter 29

The Buff, 1.
and the Buffal, 2.
are wild Bulls.
Urus, 1.
& Bubalus, 2.
sunt feri Boves.
The Elke, 3.
being bigger than an Horse
(whose back is impenetrable)
hath knaggy horns
as also the Hart, 4.
Alces, 3.
major equo
(cujus tergus est impenetrabilis)
habet ramosa cornua:
ut & Cervus, 4.
but the Roe, 5. and
the Hind-calf, almost none.
Sed Caprea, 5. cum
Hinnulo, ferè nulla.
The Stone-back, 6.
huge great ones.
Capricornus, 6.
The Wild-goat, 7.
hath very little ones,
by which she hangeth
her self on a Rock.
Rupicapra, 7.
quibus suspendit
se ad rupem.
36 The Unicorn, 8.
hath but one,
but that a precious one.
Monoceros, 8.
habet unum,
sed pretiosum.
The Boar, 9.
assaileth one with his tushes.
Aper, 9.
grassatur dentibus.
The Hare, 10. is fearful. Lepus, 10. pavet.
The Cony, 11.
diggeth the Earth.
Cuniculus, 11.
perfodit terram
As also the Mole, 12.
which maketh hillocks.
Ut & Talpa, 12.
quæ facit grumos.



Feræ Bestiæ.

Chapter 30

Wild Beasts have
sharp paws, and teeth,
and are flesh eaters.
Bestiæ habent
acutos ungues, & dentes,
suntque carnivoræ
As the Lyon, 1.
the King of four-footed Beasts,
having a mane;
with the Lioness.
Ut Leo, 1.
Rex quadrupedum,
cum Leænâ.
The spotted Panther, 2. Maculosus, Pardo
(Panthera) 2.
37 The Tyger, 3.
the cruellest of all.
Tygris, 3.
immanissima omnium.
The Shaggy Bear, 4. Villosus Ursus, 4.
The ravenous Wolf, 5. Rapax Lupus, 5.
The quick sighted Ounce, 6. Lynx, 6. visu pollens,
The tayled fox, 7.
the craftiest of all.
Caudata Vulpes, 7.
astutissima omnium.
The Hedge-hog, 8.
is prickly.
Erinaceus, 8.
est aculeatus.
The Badger, 9.
delighteth in holes.
Melis, 9.
gaudet latebris.


Serpents and Creeping things.

Serpentes & Reptilia.

Chapter 31

Snakes creep
by winding themselves;
Angues repunt
sinuando se;
The Adder, 1.
in the wood;
Coluber, 1.
in Sylvâ;
The Water-snake, 2.
in the water;
Natrix, (hydra) 2.
in Aquâ;
The Viper, 3.
amongst great stones.
Vipera, 3.
in saxis;
38 The Asp, 4. in the fields. Aspis, 4, in campis.
The Boa, (or Mild-snake) 5.
in Houses.
Boa, 5.
in Domibus.
The Slow-worm, 6.
is blind.
Cæcilia, 6.
est cœca.
The Lizzard, 7.
and the Salamander, 8.
(that liveth long in fire)
have feet.
Lacerta, 7.
Salamandra, 8.
(in igne vivax,)
habent pedes.
The Dragon, 9.
a winged Serpent,
killeth with his Breath.
Draco, 9.
Serpens alatus,
necat halitu.
The Basilisk, 10.
with his Eyes;
Basiliscus, 10.
And the Scorpion, 11.
with his poysonous tail.
Scorpio, 11.
venenatâ caudâ.



Insecta repentia.

Chapter 32

Worms gnaw things. Vermes, rodunt res.
39 The Earth-worm, 1.
the Earth.
Lumbricus, 1.
The Caterpillar, 2.
the Plant.
Eruca, 2.
The Grashopper, 3.
the Fruits.
Cicada, 3.
The Mite, 4. the Corn. Circulio, 4. Frumenta.
The Timber-worm, 5.
Teredo, (cossis) 5.
The Moth, 6. a garment. Tinea, 6. vestem.
The Book-worm, 7.
a Book.
Blatta, 7.
Maggots, 8.
Flesh and Cheese.
Termites, 8.
carnem & caseum.
Hand-worms, the Hair. Acari, Capillum.
The skipping Flea, 9.
the Lowse, 10.
and the stinking Wall-louse, 11.
bite us.
Saltans Pulex, 9.
Pediculus, 10.
fœtans Cimex, 11.
mordent nos.
The Tike, 12.
is a blood-sucker.
Ricinus, 12.
sanguisugus est.
The Silk-worm, 13.
maketh silk.
Bombyx, 13.
facit sericum.
The Pismire, 14.
is painful.
Formica, 14.
est laboriosa.
The Spider, 15.
weaveth a Cobweb,
nets for flies.
Aranea, 15.
texit Araneum,
retia muscis.
The Snail, 16.
carrieth about her Snail-horn.
Cochlea, 16.
circumfert testam.


Creatures that live as well by Water as by Land.


Chapter 33

Creatures that live
by land and by water, are
in terrâ & aquâ, sunt
The Crocodile, 1.
a cruel and preying Beast
of the River Nilus;
Crocodilus, 1.
immanis & prædatrix bestia
Nili fluminis;
The Castor or Beaver, 2.
having feet like a Goose,
and a scaly tail to swim.
Castor, (Fiber) 2.
habens pedes anserinos
& squameam Caudam
ad natandum.
The Otter, 3. Lutra, 3.
The croaking Frog, 4.
with the Toad.
& coaxans Rana, 4.
cum Bufone.
The Tortoise, 5.
covered above and beneath
with shells,
as with a target.
Testudo, 5.
Operta & infra,
ceu scuto.


River Fish and Pond Fish.

Pisces Fluviatiles & Lacustres.

Chapter 34

A Fish hath Fins, 1.
with which it swimmeth,
and Gills, 2.
by which it taketh breath,
and Prickles
instead of bones: besides
the Male hath a Milt,
and the Female a Row.
Piscis habet Pinnas, 1.
quibus natat;
& Branchias, 2.
quibus respirat;
& Spinas
loco ossium: præterea,
Mas Lactes,
Fœmina Ova.
Some have Scales
as the Carp, 3.
and the Luce or Pike, 4.
Quidam habent Squamas,
ut Carpio, 3.
Lucius, (Lupus) 4.
Some are sleek
as the Eel, 5.
and the Lamprey, 6.
Alii sunt glabri,
ut, Anguilla, 5.
Mustela, 6.
The Sturgeon, 7.
having a sharp snout,
groweth beyond
the length of a Man.
Accipenser (Sturio), 7.
crescit ultra
longitudinem viri.
The Sheath-fish, 8.
42 having wide Cheeks,
is bigger than he:
Silurus, 8.
major illo est:
But the greatest,
is the Huson, 9.
Sed maximus
Antaseus (Huso,) 9.
Minews, 10.
swimming by shoals,
are the least.
Apuæ, 10.
natantes gregatim,
sunt minutissimæ.
Others of this sort are
the Perch, the Bley,
the Barbel,
the Esch, the Trout,
the Gudgeon, and Trench, 11.
Alii hujus generis sunt
Perca, Alburnus,
Mullus, (Barbus)
Thymallus, Trutta,
Gobius, Tinca, 11.
The Crab-fish, 12.
is covered with a shell,
and it hath Claws, and crawleth
forwards and backwards.
Cancer, 12.
tegitur crusta,
habetque chelas, & graditur
porro & retrò.
The Horse-leech, 13.
sucketh blood.
Hirudo, 13.
sugit sanguinem.


Sea-fish, and Shell-fish.

Marini pisces & Conchæ.

Chapter 35

The Whale, 1. is the
greatest of the Sea-fish.
Balæna, (Cetus) 1.
maximus Piscium marinorum.
43 The Dolphin, 2.
the swiftest.
Delphinus, 2.
The Scate, 3.
the most monstrous.
Raia, 3.
Others are the Lamprel, 4.
the Salmon, or the Lax, 5.
Alii sunt Murænula, 4.
Salmo, (Esox) 5.
There are also fish that flie, 6. Dantur etiam volatiles, 6.
Add Herrings, 7.
which are brought pickled,
and Place, 8. and Cods, 9.
which are brought dry;
and the Sea monsters,
the Seal. 10.
and the Sea-horse, &c.
Adde Haleces, 7.
qui salsi,
& Passeres, 8. cum Asellis, 9.
qui adferuntur arefacti;
& monstra marina,
Phocam, 10.
Hippopotamum, &c.
Shell-fish, 11. have Shells. Concha, 11. habet testas,
The Oyster, 12.
affordeth sweet meat.
Ostrea, 12.
dat sapidam carnem.
The Purple-fish,
13. purple;
Murex, 13.
The others, Pearls, 14. Alii, 14. Margaritas.




Chapter 36

Adam, 1. the first Man,
44 was made by God
after his own Image
the sixth day of the Creation,
of a lump of Earth.
Adamus, 1. primus Homo,
formatus est a Deo
ad Imaginem suam
sextâ die Creationis,
e Gleba Terræ.
And Eve, 2.
the first Woman, was made
of the Rib of the Man.
Et Eva, 2.
prima mulier, formata est
e costâ viri.
These, being tempted
by the Devil under
the shape of a Serpent, 3.
when they had eaten of
the fruit of the forbidden Tree, 4.
were condemned, 5.
to misery and death,
with all their posterity,
and cast out of Paradise, 6.
Hi, seducti
à Diabolo sub
specie Serpentis, 3.
cum comederent de
fructu vetitæ arboris, 4.
damnati sunt, 5.
ad miseriam & mortem,
cum omni posteritate sua,
& ejecti e Paradiso 6.


The Seven Ages of Man.

Septem Ætates Hominis.

Chapter 37

A Man is first an Infant, 1.
45 then a Boy, 2.
then a Youth, 3.
then a Young-man, 4.
then a Man, 5.
after that an Elderly-man, 6.
and at last, a decrepid old man, 7.
Homo est primum Infans, 1.
deinde Puer, 2.
tum Adolescens, 3.
inde Juvenis, 4.
posteà Vir, 5.
dehinc Senex, 6.
tandem Silicernium, 7.
So also in the other Sex,
there are, a Girl, 8.
A Damosel, 9. a Maid, 10.
A Woman, 11.
an elderly Woman, 12. and
a decrepid old Woman, 13.
Sic etiam in altero Sexu,
sunt, Pupa, 8.
Puella, 9. Virgo, 10.
Mulier, 11.
Vetula, 12.
Anus decrepita, 13.


The Outward Parts of a Man.

Membra Hominis Externa.

Chapter 38

The Head, 1. is above,
the Feet, 20. below.
46 the fore part of the Neck
(which ends at
the Arm-holes, 2.)
is the Throat, 3.
the hinder part, the Crag, 4.
Caput, 1. est supra,
infra Pedes, 20.
Anterior pars Colli
(quod desit
in Axillas, 2.)
est Jugulum, 3.
posterior Cervix, 4.
The Breast, 5, is before;
the back, 6, behind;
Women have in it
two Dugs, 7.
with Nipples,
Pectus, 5. est ante;
Dorsum, 6. retro;
Fœeminis sunt in illo
binæ Mammæ, 7.
cum Papillis.
Under the Breast
is the Belly, 9.
in the middle of it
the Navel, 10.
underneath the Groyn, 11.
and the privities.
Sub pectore
est Venter, 9.
in ejus medio,
Umbelicus, 10.
subtus Inguen, 11.
& pudenda.
The Shoulder-blades, 12.
are behind the back,
on which the Shoulders
depend, 13.
on these the Arms, 14.
with the Elbow, 15. and then
on either side the Hands,
the right, 8. and the left, 16.
Scapulæ, 12.
sunt a tergo,
â quibus pendent
humeri, 13.
ab his Brachia, 14.
cum Cubito, 15. inde
ad utrumque Latus, Manus,
Dextera, 8. & Sinistra, 16.
The Loyns   
are next the Shoulders,
with the Hips, 18.
and in the Breech,
the Buttocks, 19.
Lumbi, 17.
excipiunt Humeros,
cum Coxis, 18.
& in Podice, (culo)
Nates, 19.
These make the Foot;
the Thigh, 21. then the Leg, 23.
(the Knee,
being betwixt them, 22.)
in which is the Calf, 24.
with the Shin, 25.
then the Ankles, 26.
the Heel, 27.
and the Sole, 28.
in the very end,
the great Toe, 29.
with four (other) Toes.
Absolvunt Pedem;
Femur, 21. tum Crus, 23.
(Genu, 22. intermedio.)
in quo Sura, 24.
cum Tilia, 25.
abhinc Tali, 26.
Calx, (Calcaneum) 27.
& Solum, 28.
in extremo
Hallux, 29.
cum quatuor Digitis.


The Head and the Hand.

Caput & Manus.

Chapter 39

In the Head are
the Hair, 1.
(which is combed
with a Comb, 2.)
two Ears, 3.
the Temples, 4.
and the Face, 5.
In Capite sunt
Capillus, 1.
(qui pectitur
Pectine, 2.)
Aures, 3. binæ,
& Tempora, 4.
Facies, 5.
In the Face are
the Fore-head, 6.
both the Eyes, 7.
the Nose, 8.
(with two Nostrils)
the Mouth, 9.
the Cheeks, 10.
and the Chin, 13.
In facie sunt
Frons, 6.
Oculus, 7. uterque,
Nasus, 8.
(cum duabus Naribus)
Os, 9.
Genæ, (Malæ) 10.
& Mentum, 13.
The Mouth is fenced
with a Mustacho, 11.
and Lips, 12.
48 A Tongue and a Palate,
and Teeth, 16.
in the Cheek-bone.
Os septum est
Mystace, 11.
& Labiis, 12.
Lingua cum Palato,
Dentibus, 16.
in Maxilla.
A Man’s Chin
is covered with a Beard, 14.
and the Eye
(in which is the White
and the Apple)
with eye-lids,
and an eye-brow, 15.
Mentum virile
tegitur Barba, 14.
Oculos vero
(in quo Albugo
& Pupilla)
palpæbris, &
supercilio, 15.
The Hand being closed
is a Fist, 17.
being open is a Palm, 18.
in the midst, is the hollow, 19.
of the Hand
the extremity is
the Thumb, 20.
with four Fingers,
the Fore-finger, 21.
the Middle-finger, 22.
the Ring-finger, 23.
and the Little-finger, 24.
Manus contracta,
Pugnus, 17.
est aperta, Palma, 18.
in medio Vola, 19.
Pollex, 20.
cum quatuor Digitis,
Indice, 21.
Medio, 22.
Annulari, 23.
& Auriculari, 24.
In every one are
three joynts, a. b. c.
and as many knuckles, d. e. f.
with a Nail, 25.
In quolibet sunt
articuli tres, a. b. c.
& totidem Condyli, d. e. f.
cum Ungue, 25.


The Flesh and Bowels.

Caro & Viscera.

Chapter 40

In the Body are the Skin
with the Membranes,
the Flesh with the Muscles,
the Chanels,
the Gristles,
the Bones and the Bowels.
In Corpore sunt Cutis
cum Membranis,
Caro cum Musculis,
Ossa & Viscera.
The Skin, 1. being pull’d off,
the Flesh, 2. appeareth,
not in a continual lump,
but being distributed,
as it were in stuft puddings,
which they call Muscles,
whereof there are reckoned
four hundred and five,
being the Chanels of the Spirits,
to move the Members.
Cute, 1. detractâ,
Caro, 2. apparet,
non continuâ massâ,
sed distributa,
tanquam in farcimina,
quos vocant Musculos,
quorum numerantur
quadringenti quinque,
canales Spirituum,
ad movendum Membra.
The Bowels are
the inward Members:
Viscera sunt
Membra interna:
As in the Head,
the Brains, 3.
being compassed about
with a Skull, and
50 the Skin which covereth
the Skull.
Ut in Capite,
Cerebrum, 3.
Cranio, &
In the Breast, the Heart, 4.
covered with
a thin Skin about it,
and the Lungs, 5.
breathing to and fro.
In Pectore, Cor, 4.
& Pulmo, 5.
In the Belly,
the Stomach, 6.
and the Guts, 7.
covered with a Caul.
The Liver, 8.
and in the left side opposite
against it, the Milt, 9.
the two Kidneys, 10.
and the Bladder, 11.
In Ventre,
Ventriculus, 6.
& Intestina, 7.
obducta Omento.
Jecur, (Hepar) 8.
& à sinistro oppositus
ei Lien, 9.
duo Renes, 10.
cum Vesica, 11.
The Breast
is divided from the Belly
by a thick Membrane,
which is called the Mid-riff, 12.
dividitur à Ventre
crassâ Membranâ,
quæ vocatur Diaphragma, 12.


The Chanels and Bones.

Canales & Ossa.

Chapter 41

The Chanels of the Body are
51 the Veins, carrying
the Blood from the Liver;
Canales Corporis sunt
Venæ deferentes
Sanguinem ex Hepate;
The Arteries (carrying)
Heart and Life from the
Calorem & Vitam è
The Nerves (carrying)
Sense and Motion
throughout the Body from
the Brain.
Sensum et Motum,
per Corpus a Cerebro.
You shall find these three, 1.
everywhere joined together.
Invenies hæc tria, 1.
ubique sociata.
Besides, from the Mouth
into the Stomach is
the Gullet, 2. the
way of the meat and drink;
and by it to the Lights, the
Wezand, 5. for breathing;
from the Stomach to the Anus
is a great Intestine, 3.
to purge out the Ordure;
from the Liver to the
Bladder, the Ureter, 4.
for making water.
Porrò, ab Ore
in Ventriculum
Gula, 2.
via cibi ac potus;
& juxta hanc, ad Pulmonem
Guttur, 5. pro respiratione;
à ventriculo ad Anum
Colon, 3.
ad excernendum Stercus;
ab Hepate ad
Vesicam, Ureter, 4.
reddendæ urinæ.
The Bones are
in the Head, the Skull, 6.
the two Cheek-bones, 7.
with thirty-two Teeth, 8.
Ossa sunt
in Capite, Calvaria, 6.
duæ Maxillæ, 7.
cum XXXII. Dentibus, 8.
Then the Back-bone, 9.
the Pillar of the Body,
consisting of thirty-four
turning Joints, that the
Body may bend it self.
Tum, Spina dorsi, 9.
columna Corporis,
constans ex XXXIV.
Vertebris, ut
Corpus queat flectere se   
The Ribs, 10. whereof
there are twenty-four.
Costæ, 10. quarum
viginti quatuor.
The Breast-bone, 11.
the two Shoulder-blades, 12.
the Buttock-bone, 13.
the bigger Bone
in the Arm, 15. and
the lesser Bone in the Arm.
Os Pectoris, 11.
duæ Scapulæ, 12.
Os sessibuli, 13.
Lacerti, 15.
& Ulna.
52 The Thigh-bone, 14.
the foremost, 16.
and the hindmost Bone,
in the Leg, 17.
Tibia, 14.
Fibula, 16. anterior,
& posterior, 17.
The Bones of the Hand, 18.
are thirty-four, and
of the Foot, 19. thirty.
Ossa Manûs, 18.
sunt triginta quatuor,
Pedis, 19. triginta.
The Marrow is in
the Bones.
Medulla est in Ossibus


The Outward and Inward Senses.

Sensus externi & interni.

Chapter 42

There are five outward
Sunt quinque externi
The Eye, 1. seeth Colours,
what is white or black,
green or blew,
red or yellow.
Oculus, 1. videt Colores,
quid album vel atrum,
viride vel cœruleum,
rubrum aut luteum, sit.
The Ear, 2. heareth
Sounds, both natural,
Voices and Words;
and artificial,
53 Musical Tunes.
Auris, 2. audit
Sonos, tum naturales,
Voces & Verba;
tum artificiales,
Tonos Musicos.
The Nose, 3. scenteth
smells and stinks.
Nasus, 3, olfacit
odores & fœtores.
The Tongue, 4.
with the roof of the Mouth
tastes Savours,
what is sweet or bitter,
keen or biting,
sower or harsh.
Lingua, 4.
cum Palato
gustat Sapores,
quid dulce aut amarum,
acre aut acidum,
acerbum aut austerum.
The Hand, 5. by touching
discerneth the quantity
and quality of things;
the hot and cold,
the moist and dry,
the hard and soft,
the smooth and rough,
the heavy and light.
Manus, 5. tangendo
dignoscit quantitatem,
& qualitatem rerum;
calidum & frigidum,
humidum & siccum,
durum & molle,
læve & asperum,
grave & leve.
The inward Senses are
Sensus interni sunt tres.
The Common Sense, 7.
under the forepart of the
, apprehendeth
things taken from
the outward Senses.
Sensus Communis, 7.
sub sincipite
res perceptas a
Sensibus externis.
The Phantasie, 6.
under the crown of the head
judgeth of those things,
thinketh and dreameth
Phantasia, 6.
sub vertice,
dijudicat res istas,
cogitat, somniat.
The Memory, 8.
under the hinder part of the
, layeth up every thing
and fetcheth them out:
it loseth some,
and this is forgetfulness.
Memoria, 8.
sub occipitio,
recondit singula
& depromit:
deperdit quædam,
& hoc est oblivio.
Sleep, is
the rest of the Senses.
Somnus, est
requies Sensuum.


The Soul of Man.

Anima hominis.

Chapter 43

The Soul is the Life
of the Body, one in the whole.
Anima est vita
corporis, una in toto.
Only Vegetative in Plants; Tantùm Vegetativa in
Withal Sensitive in
Simul Sensitiva in
And also rational in
Etiam Rationalis in
This consisteth in three
Hæc consistet in tribus:
In the Understanding,
whereby it judgeth
and understandeth
a thing good and evil,
or true, or apparent.
In Mente (Intellectu)
quâ cognoscit,
& intelligit,
bonum ac malum,
vel verum, vel apparens.
In the Will,
whereby it chooseth,
and desireth,
or rejecteth, and
misliketh a thing known.
In Voluntate,
quâ eligit,
& concupiscit,
aut rejicit, &
aversatur cognitum.
In the Mind,
whereby it pursueth
55 the Good chosen or
avoideth the Evil rejected.
In Animo,
quo prosequitur
Bonum electum, vel
fugit Malum rejectum.
Hence is Hope and Fear
in the desire,
and dislike.
Hinc Spes & Timor,
in cupidine,
& aversatione:
Hence is Love and Joy,
in the Fruition:
Hinc Amor & Gaudium,
in fruitione:
But Anger and Grief,
in suffering.
Sed Ira ac Dolor,
in passione.
The true judgment of a
thing is Knowledge;
the false, is Error,
Opinion and Suspicion.
Vera cognitio
rei, est Scientia;
falsa, Error,
Opinio, Suspicio.


Deformed and Monstrous People.

Deformes & Monstrosi.

Chapter 44

Monstrous and
deformed People are those
which differ in the Body
from the ordinary shape,
56 as the huge Gyant, 1.
the little Dwarf, 2.
One with two Bodies, 3.
One with two Heads, 4.
and such like Monsters.
Monstrosi, &
deformes sunt
abeuntes corpore
à communi formâ,
ut sunt, immanis Gigas,   
nanus (Pumilio), 2.
Bicorpor, 3.
Biceps, 4.
& id genus monstra.
Amongst these are reckoned,
The jolt-headed, 5.
The great nosed, 6.
The blubber-lipped, 7.
The blub-cheeked, 8.
The goggle-eyed, 9.
The wry-necked, 10.
The great-throated, 11.
The Crump-backed, 12.
The Crump-footed, 13.
The steeple-crowned, 15.
add to these
The Bald-pated, 14.
His accensentur,
Capito, 5.
Naso, 6.
Labeo, 7.
Bucco, 8.
Strabo, 9.
Obstipus, 10.
Strumosus, 11.
Gibbosus, 12.
Loripes, 13.
Cilo, 15.
Calvastrum, 14.


The Dressing of Gardens.

Hortorum cultura.

Chapter 45

We have seen Man:
Now let us go on to
57 Man’s living, and to
which tend to it.
Vidimus hominem:
Jam pergamus ad
Victum hominis, & ad
Artes Mechanicas,
quæ huc faciunt.
The first and most ancient
sustenance, were the
Fruits of the Earth.
Primus & antiquissimus
Victus, erant
Fruges Terræ.
Hereupon the first
labour of Adam, was
the dressing of a garden.
Hinc primus
Labor Adami,
Horti cultura.
The Gardener, 1.
diggeth in a Garden-plot,
with a Spade, 2.
or Mattock, 3.
and maketh Beds, 4.
and places wherein
to plant Trees, 5.
on which he setteth
Seeds and Plants.
Hortulanus (Olitor), 1.
fodit in Viridario,
Ligone, 2.
aut Bipalio, 3.
facitque Pulvinos, 4.
ac Plantaria, 5.
quibus inserit
Semina & Plantas.
The Tree-Gardener, 6.
planteth Trees, 7.
in an Orchard,
and grafteth Cyons, 8.
in Stocks, 9.
Arborator, 6.
plantat Arbores, 7.
in Pomario,
inseritque Surculos, 8.
Viviradicibus, 9.
He fenceth his Garden,
either by care,
with a mound, 10.
or a Stone-wall, 11.
or a rail, 12.
or Pales, 13.
or a Hedge, 14.
made of Hedge-stakes,
and bindings;
Sepit hortum
vel Cura,
Muro, 10.
aut Macerie, 11.
aut Vacerra, 12.
aut Plancis, 13.
aut Sepe, 14.
flexâ è sudibus
& vitilibus;
Or by Nature, with
Brambles and Bryers, 15.
Vel Natura
Dumis & Vepribus, 15.
It is beautified
with Walks, 16.
and Galleries, 17.
Ambulacris, 16.
& Pergulis, 17.
It is watered
with Fountains, 18.
and a Watering-pot, 19.
Fontanis, 18.
& Harpagio, 19.




Chapter 46

The Plow-man, 1.
yoketh Oxen, 3.
to a Plough, 2.
and holding the Plow-stilt, 4.
in his left hand,
and the Plow-staff, 5.
in his right hand,
with which he removeth
Clods, 6.
he cutteth the Land,
(which was manured afore
with Dung, 8.)
with a Share, 7.
and a Coulter,
and maketh furrows, 9.
Arator, 1.
jungit Boves, 3.
Aratro, 2.
& tenens Stivam, 4.
Rallum, 5.
quâ amovet
Glebas, 6.
scindit terram
(stercoratam antea
Fimo, 8.)
Vomere, 7.
et Dentali,
facitque Sulcos, 9.
Then he soweth
the Seed, 10.
and harroweth it in
with a Harrow, 11.
Tum seminat
Semen, 10.
& inoccat
Occâ, 11.
The Reaper, 12.
sheareth the ripe corn
with a Sickle, 13.
gathereth up the handfuls, 14.
59 and bindeth the Sheaves, 15.
Messor, 12.
metit fruges maturas
Falce messoris, 13.
colligit Manipulos, 14.
& colligat Mergetes, 15.
The Thrasher, 16.
thrasheth Corn
on the Barn-floor, 17.
with a Flayl, 18. tosseth
it in a winnowing-basket, 19.
and so when the Chaff,
and the Straw, 20.
are separated from it,
he putteth it into Sacks, 12.
Tritor, 16.
triturat frumentum
in Area Horrei, 17.
Flagello (tribula), 18.
jactat ventilabro, 19.
atque ita Paleâ
& Stramine, 20.
congerit in Saccos, 21.
The Mower, 22.
maketh Hay in a Meadow,
cutting down Grass
with a Sithe, 23.
and raketh it together
with a Rake, 24. and
maketh up Cocks, 26.
with a fork, 25, and
carrieth it on Carriages, 27.
into the Hay-barn, 28.
Fœniseca, 22.
facit Fœnum in Prato,
desecans Gramen
Falce fœnaria, 23.
Rastro, 24.
componit Acervos, 26.
Furca, 25. &
convehit Vehibus, 27.
in Fœnile, 28.




Chapter 47

60 Tillage of ground,
and keeping Cattle,
was in old time
the care of Kings and Noble-men;
at this Day only
of the meanest sort of People,
Cultus Agrorum,
& res pecuaria,
antiquissimis temporibus,
erat cura Regum, Heroum;
hodie tantum
infirmæ Plebis,
The Neat-heard, 1.
calleth out the Heards, 2.
out of the Beast-houses, 3.
with a Horn, 4.
and driveth them to feed.
Bubulcus, 1.
evocat Armenta, 2.
è Bovilibus, 3.
Buccina (Cornu), 4,
& ducit pastum.
The Shepherd, 5.
feedeth his Flock, 6.
being furnished with a
Pipe, 7. and a Scrip, 8.
and a Sheep-hook, 9.
having with him
a great Dog, 10.
fenced with a Collar, 11.
against the Wolves.
Opilio (Pastor), 5.
pascit Gregem, 6.
instructus Fistula, 7.
& Pera, 8.
ut & Pedo, 9.
habens secum
Molossum, 10.
munitum Millo, 11.
contra Lupos.
Swine, 12. are fed
out of a Swine-Trough.
Sues, 12. saginantur
ex aqualiculo haræ.
The Farmer’s Wife, 13.
milketh the Udders
of the Cow, 15.
at the Cratch, 15.
over a milk-pale, 16.
and maketh Butter
of Cream
in a Churn, 17.
and Cheeses, 18.
of Curds.
Villica, 13.
mulget Ubera
vaccæ, 14.
ad Præsepe, 15.
super mulctra, 16.
et facit Butyrum
è flore lactis,
in Vase butyraceo, 17.
et Caseos, 18.
è Coagulo.
The Wool, 19.
is shorn from Sheep,
whereof several Garments
are made.
Lana, 19.
detondetur Ovibus,
ex quà variæ Vestes


The making of Honey.


Chapter 48

The Bees send out
a swarm, 1. and set over it
a Leader, 2.
Apes emittunt
Examen, 1. adduntque illi
Ducem (Regem), 2.
That swarm
being ready to fly away
is recalled by the Tinkling
of a brazen Vessel, 3.
and is put up
into a new Hive, 4.
Examen illud,
revocatur tinnitu
Vasis ænei, 3.
& includitur
novo Alveari, 4.
They make little Cells
with six corners, 5.
and fill them with Honey-dew,
and make Combs, 6.
out of which the Honey
runneth, 7.
Struunt Cellulas
sexangulares, 5.
et complent eas Melligine,
& faciunt Favos, 6.
è quibus Mel
effluit, 7.
The Partitions
being melted by fire,
turn into Wax, 8.
liquati igne
abeunt in Ceram, 8.




Chapter 49

In a Mill, 1.
a Stone, 2. runneth
upon a stone, 3.
In Mola,  
Lapis, 2. currit
super lapidem, 3,
A Wheel, 4.
turning them about and
grindeth Corn poured in
by a Hopper, 5.
and parteth the Bran, 6.
falling into the Trough, 7.
from the Meal
slipping through a Bolter, 8.
Rota, 4.
circumagente, et
conterit grana infusa
per Infundibulum, 5.
separatque Furfurem, 6.
decidentem in Cistam, 7.
à Farina (Polline)
elabente per Excussorium, 8.
Such a Mill was first
a Hand-mill, 9.
then a Horse-mill, 10.
then a Water-mill, 11.
then a Ship-mill, 12.
and at last a Wind-mill, 13.
Talis Mola primùm fuit
Manuaria, 9.
deinde Jumentaria, 10.
tum Aquatica, 11.
& Navalis, 12.
tandem, Alata (pneumatica), 13.




Chapter 50

The Baker, 1.
sifteth the Meal
in a Rindge, 2.
and putteth it into
the Kneading-trough, 3.
Pistor, 1.
cernit Farinam
Cribo, 2. (pollinario)
& indit Mactræ, 3.
Then he poureth water to it
and maketh Dough, 4.
and kneadeth it
with a wooden slice, 5.
Tum affundit aquam,
& facit Massam, 4.
spatha, 5. ligneâ.
Then he maketh
Loaves, 6. Cakes, 7.
Cimnels, 8. Rolls, 9, &c.
Dein format
Panes, 6. Placentas, 7.
Similas, 8. Spiras, 9. &c.
Afterwards he setteth them
on a Peel, 10.
and putteth them
thorow the Oven-mouth, 12.
into the Oven, 11.
Post imponit
Palæ, 10.
& ingerit
Furno, 11.
per Præfurnium, 12.
But first he pulleth out
the fire and the Coals
with a Coal-rake, 13.
64 which he layeth on a heap
underneath, 14.
Sed priùs eruit
ignem & Carbones
Rutabulo, 13.
quos congerit
infra, 14.
And thus is Bread baked,
having the Crust without, 15.
and the Crumb within, 16.
Et sic Panis pinsitur
habens extra Crustam, 15.
intus Micam, 16.




Chapter 51

The Fisher-man, 1.
catcheth fish,
either on the Shoar,
with an Hook, 2.
which hangeth by a Line
from the angling-rod,
on which the Bait sticketh;
or with a Cleek-net, 3.
which hangeth on a Pole, 4.
is put into the Water;
or in a Boat, 5.
with a Trammel-net, 6.
or with a Wheel, 7.
which is laid in the Water
by Night.
Piscator, 1.
captat pisces,
sive in littore,
Hamo, 2.
qui pendet filo
ab arundine,
& cui Esca inhæret;
sive Fundâ, 3.
quæ pendens Pertica, 4.
immittitur aquæ;
sive in Cymba, 5.
Reti, 6.
sive Nassa, 7.
quæ demergitur
per Noctem.




Chapter 52

The Fowler, 1.
maketh a Bed, 2,
a Bird-net, 3.
throweth a Bait, 4. upon it,
and hiding himself in a Hut, 5.
he allureth Birds,
by the chirping of Lurebirds,
which partly
hop upon the Bed, 6.
and are partly shut in Cages, 7.
and thus he entangleth
Birds that fly over,
in his net whilst
they settle themselves down.
Auceps, 1.
exstruit Aream, 2.
superstruit illi
Rete aucupatorium, 3.
obsipat Escam, 4.
& abdens se in Latibulo, 5.
allicit Aves,
cantu Illicum,
qui partim
in Area currunt, 6.
partim inclusi sunt Caveis, 7.
atque ita obruit
transvolantes Aves
Reti, dum
se demittunt:
Or he setteth Snares, 8.
on which they hang and
strangle themselves:
Aut tendit Tendiculas, 8.
quibus suspendunt &
suffocant seipsas:
Or setteth Lime-twigs, 9.
on a Perch, 10.
66 upon which if they sit
they enwrap their Feathers,
so that they cannot fly away,
and fall down to the ground.
Aut exponit Viscatos calamos, 9.
Amiti, 10.
quibus si insident,
implicant pennas,
ut nequeant avolare,
& decidunt in terram.
Or he catcheth them
with a Pole, 11.
or a Pit-fall, 12.
Aut captat
Perticâ, 11.
vel Decipulâ, 12.




Chapter 53

The Hunter, 1.
hunteth wild Beasts
whilst he besetteth a Wood
with Toyls, 2.
stretched out upon
Shoars, 3.
Venator, 1.
venatur Feras,
dum cingit Sylvam,
Cassibus, 2.
tentis super
Varos, 3. (furcillas.)
The Beagle, 4.
tracketh the wild Beast
or findeth him out by the scent;
the Tumbler, or Greyhound, 5.
pursueth it.
Canis sagax, 4.
vestigat Feram,
aut indagat odoratu;
Vertagus, 5.
The Wolf,
falleth in a Pit, 6.
67 the Stag, 7. as he runneth away,
into Toyls.
incidit in Foveam, 6.
fugiens Cervus, 7.
in Plagas.
The Boar, 8.
is struck through
with a Hunting-spear, 9.
Aper, 8.
Venabulo, 9.
The Bear, 10.
is bitten by Dogs,
and is knocked
with a Club, 11.
Ursus, 10.
mordetur à Canibus,
& tunditur
Clavâ, 11.
If any thing get away,
it escapeth, 12. as here
a Hare and a Fox.
Si quid effugit,
evadit, 12. ut hic
Lepus & Vulpes.




Chapter 54

The Butcher, 1.
killeth fat Cattle, 2.
(The Lean, 3.
are not fit to eat.)
Lanio, 1.
mactat Pecudem altilem, 2.
(Vescula, 3.
non sunt vescenda.)
He knocketh them down
with an Ax, 4.
or cutteth their Throat
68 with a Slaughter-knife, 5.
he flayeth them, 6.
and cutteth them in pieces,
and hangeth out the flesh
to sell in the Shambles, 7.
Clavâ, 4.
vel jugulat.
Cunaculo, 5.
excoriat (deglubit,) 6.
& exponit carnes,
venum in Macello, 7.
He dresseth a Swine, 8.
with fire
or scalding water, 9.
and maketh Gamons, 10.
Pistils, 11.
and Flitches, 12.
Glabrat Suem, 8.
vel aquâ fervidâ, 9.
& facit Pernas, 10.
Petasones, 11.
& Succidias, 12.
Besides several Puddings,
Chitterlings, 13.
Bloodings, 14.
Liverings, 15.
Sausages, 16.
Prætereà Farcimina varia,
Faliscos, 13.
Apexabones, 14.
Tomacula, 15.
Botulos, (Lucanicas) 16.
The Fat, 17. and
Tallow, 18. are melted.
Adeps, 17. &
Sebum, 18. eliquantur.




Chapter 55

The Yeoman of the Larder, 1.
bringeth forth Provision, 2.
out of the Larder, 3.
Promus Condus, 1.
profert Obsonia, 2.
è Penu, 3.
69 The Cook, 4. taketh them
and maketh several Meats.
Coquus, 4. accipit ea
& coquit varia Esculenta.
He first pulleth off the Feathers
and draweth the Gutts
out of the Birds, 5.
Prius deplumat,
& exenterat
Aves, 5.
He scaleth and
splitteth Fish, 6.
Desquamat &
exdorsuat Pisces, 6.
He draweth some flesh
with Lard, by means of
a Larding-needle, 7.
Trajectat quasdem carnes
Lardo, ope
Creacentri, 7.
He caseth Hares, 8.
then he boileth them in Pots, 9.
and Kettles, 10.
on the Hearth, 11.
and scummeth them
with a Scummer, 12.
Lepores, 8. exuit,
tum elixat Ollis, 9.
& Cacabis, 10.
in Foco, 11.
& despumat
Lingula, 12.
He seasoneth things
that are boyled with Spices,
which he poundeth with
a Pestil, 14. in a Morter, 13.
or grateth with a Grater, 15.
elixata, Aromatibus,
quæ comminuit
Pistillo, 14. in Mortario, 13.
aut terit Radulâ, 15.
He roasteth some on Spits, 16.
and with a Jack, 17.
or upon a Grid-iron, 18.
Quædam assat Verubus, 16.
& Automato, 17.
vel super Craticulum, 18.
Or fryeth them
in a Frying-pan, 19.
upon a Brand-iron, 20.
Vel frigit
Sartagine, 19.
super Tripodem, 20.
Kitchen utensils
besides are,
a Coal-rake, 21.
a Chafing-dish, 22.
a Trey, 23.
(in which Dishes, 24. and
Platters, 25. are washed),
a pair of Tongs, 26.
a Shredding-knife, 27.
a Colander, 28.
a Basket, 29.
and a Besom, 30.
Vasa Coquinaria
præterea sunt,
Rutabulum, 21.
Foculus (Ignitabulum), 22.
Trua, 23.
(in quà Catini, 24. &
Patinæ, 25. eluuntur)
Forceps, 26.
Culter incisorius, 27.
Qualus, 28.
Corbis, 29.
& Scopa, 30.


The Vintage.


Chapter 56

Wine groweth
in the Vine-yard, 1.
where Vines are propagated
and tyed with Twigs
to Trees, 2.
or to Props, 3.
or Frames, 4.
Vinum crescit
in Vinea, 1.
ubi Vites propagantur,
& alligantur viminibus
ad Arbores, 2.
vel ad Palos (ridicas), 3.
vel ad Juga, 4
When the time of
Grape-gathering is come,
they cut off the Bunches,
and carry them in
Measures of three Bushels, 5.
and throw them into a Vat, 6.
and tread them
with their Feet, 7.
or stamp them
with a Wooden-Pestil, 8.
and squeeze out the juice
in a Wine-press, 9.
which is called Must, 11.
71 and being received
in a great Tub, 10.
it is poured into
Hogsheads, 12.
it is stopped up, 15.
and being laid close in Cellars
upon Settles, 14.
it becometh Wine.
Cùm tempus
vindemiandi adest,
abscindunt Botros,
& comportant
Trimodiis, 5.
conjiciuntque in Lacum, 6.
Pedibus, 7.
aut tundunt
Ligneo Pilo, 8.
& exprimunt succum
Torculari, 9.
qui dicitur Mustum, 11.
& exceptum
Orcâ, 10.
Vasis (Doliis), 12.
operculatur, 15.
& abditum in Cellis,
super Cantherios, 14.
abit in Vinum.
It is drawn out of the Hogshead,
with a Cock, 13.
or Faucet, 16.
(in which is a Spigot)
the Vessel being unbunged.
Promitur e Dolio
Siphone, 13.
aut Tubulo, 16.
(in quo est Epistomium)
Vase relito.




Chapter 57

Where Wine is not to be had
they drink Beer,
which is brewed of Malt, 1.
and Hops, 2.
in a Caldron, 3.
afterwards it is poured
into Vats, 4.
72 and when it is cold,
it is carried in Soes, 5.
into the Cellar, 6.
and is put into Vessels.
Ubi Vinum non habetur,
bibitur Cerevisia (Zythus),
quæ coquitur ex Byne, 1.
& Lupulo, 2.
in Aheno, 3.
post effunditur
in Lacus, 4.
& frigefactum
defertur Labris, 5.
in Cellaria, 6.
& intunditur vasibus.
extracted by the power of heat
from dregs of Wine
in a Pan, 7.
over which a Limbeck, 8.
is placed,
droppeth through a Pipe, 9.
into a Glass.
Vinum sublimatum,
extractum vi Caloris
e fecibus Vini
in Aheno, 7.
cui Alembicum, 8.
superimpositum est
destillat per Tubum, 9.
in Vitrum.
Wine and Beer
when they turn sowre,
become Vinegar.
Vinum & Cerevisia,
cum acescunt,
fiunt Acetum.
Of Wine and Honey
they make Mead.
Ex Vino & Melle
faciunt Mulsum.


A Feast.


Chapter 58

When a Feast
is made ready,
the table is covered
with a Carpet, 1.
73 and a Table-cloth, 2.
by the Waiters,
who besides lay
the Trenchers, 3.
Spoons, 4.
Knives, 5.
with little Forks, 6.
Table-napkins, 7.
Bread, 8.
with a Salt-seller, 9.
Cum Convivium
Mensa sternitur
Tapetibus, 1.
& Mappa, 2.
à Tricliniariis,
qui prætereà opponunt
Discos (Orbes), 3.
Cochlearia, 4.
Cultros, 5.
cum Fuscinulis, 6.
Mappulas, 7.
Panem, 8.
cum Salino, 9.
Messes are brought
in Platters, 10.
a Pie, 19. on a Plate.
Fercula inferuntur
in Patinis, 10.
Artocrea, 19. in Lance.
The Guests being brought in
by the Host, 11.
wash their Hands
out of a Laver, 12.
or Ewer, 14.
over a Hand-basin, 13.
or Bowl, 15.
and wipe them
on a Hand-towel, 16.
then they sit at the Table
on Chairs, 17.
Convivæ introducti
ab Hospite, 11.
abluunt manus
è Gutturnio, 12.
vel Aquali, 14.
super Malluvium, 13.
aut Pelvim, 15.
Mantili, 16.
tum assident Mensæ
per Sedilia, 17.
The Carver, 18.
breaketh up the good Cheer,
and divideth it.
Structor, 18.
deartuat dapes,
& distribuit.
Sauces are set amongst
Roast-meat, in Sawcers, 20.
Embammata interponuntur
Assutaris in Scutellis, 20.
The Butler, 21.
filleth strong Wine
out of a Cruise, 25.
or Wine-pot, 26.
or Flagon, 27.
into Cups, 22.
or Glasses, 23.
which stand
on a Cupboard, 24.
and he reacheth them
to the Master of the Feast, 28.
who drinketh to his Guests.
Pincerna, 21.
infundit Temetum,
ex Urceo, 25.
vel Cantharo, 26.
vel Lagena, 27.
in Pocula, 22.
vel Vitrea, 23.
quæ extant
in abaco, 24.
& porrigit,
Convivatori, 28.
qui propinat Hospitibus.


The Dressing of Line.

Tractatio Lini.

Chapter 59

Line and Hemp
being rated in water,
and dryed again, 1.
are braked
with a wooden Brake, 2.
where the Shives, 3.
fall down,
then they are heckled
with an Iron Heckle, 4.
where the Tow, 5.
is parted from it.
Linum & Cannabis,
macerata aquis,
et siccata rursum, 1.
Frangibulo ligneo, 2.
ubi Cortices, 3.
tum carminantur
Carmine ferreo, 4.
ubi Stupa, 5.
Flax is tyed to a Distaff, 6.
by the Spinster, 7.
which with her left hand
pulleth out the Thread, 8.
and with her right hand
turneth a Wheel, 9.
or a Spindle, 10.
upon which is a Wharl, 11.
Linum purum alligatur Colo, 6.
à Netrice, 7.
quæ sinistra
trahit Filum, 8.
dexterâ, 12.
Rhombum (girgillum), 9.
vel Fusum, 10.
in quo Verticillus, 11.
The Spool receiveth
the Thread, 13.
75 which is drawn thence
upon a Yarn-windle, 14.
hence either Clews, 15.
are wound up,
or Hanks, 16. are made.
Volva accipit
Fila, 13.
inde deducuntur
in Alabrum, 14.
hinc vel Glomi, 15.
vel Fasciculi, 16. fiunt.




Chapter 60

The Webster
undoeth the Clews, 1.
into Warp,
and wrappeth it about
the Beam, 2.
and as he sitteth
in his Loom, 3.
he treadeth upon the Treddles, 4.
with his Feet.
diducit Glomos, 1.
in Stamen,
& circumvolvit
Jugo, 2.
ac sedens
in Textrino, 3.
calcat Insilia, 4.
He divideth the Warp, 5.
with Yarn
and throweth the Shuttle, 6. through,
in which is the Woofe,
and striketh it close.
76 with the Sley, 7.
and so maketh
Linen cloth, 8.
Diducit Stamen, 5.
& trajicit Radium, 6.
in quo est Trama,
ac densat.
Pectine, 7.
atque ita conficit
Linteum, 8.
So also the Clothier
maketh Cloth of Wool.
Sic etiam Pannifex
facit Pannum è Lana.


Linen Cloths.


Chapter 61

are bleached in the Sun, 1.
with Water poured on them, 2.
till they be white.
insolantur, 1.
aquâ perfusâ, 2.
donec candefiant.
Of them the Sempster, 3.
soweth Shirts, 4.
Handkirchers, 5.
Bands, 6. Caps, &c.
Ex iis Sartrix, 3.
suit Indusia, 4.
Muccinia, 5.
Collaria, 6. Capitia, &c.
These if they be fouled,
are washed again
by the Laundress, 7. in water,
or Lye and Sope.
Haec, si sordidentur
lavantur rursum,
a Lotrice, 7. aquâ,
sive Lixivio ac Sapone.


The Taylor.


Chapter 62

The Taylor, 1. cutteth
Cloth, 2. with Shears, 3.
and seweth it together with a Needle
and double thread,
Sartor, 1. discindit
Pannum, 2. Forfice, 3.
consuitque Acu
& Filo duplicato, 4.
Then he presseth the Seams
with a Pressing-iron, 5.
Posteâ complanat Suturas
Ferramento, 5.
And thus he maketh
Coats, 6.
with Plaits, 7.
in which the Border, 8. is below
with Laces, 9.
Sicque conficit
Tunicas, 6.
Plicatas, 7.
in quibus infra est Fimbria, 8.
cum Institis, 9.
Cloaks, 10.
with a Cape, 11.
and Sleeve Coats, 12.
Pallia, 10.
cum Patagio, 11.
& Togas Manicatas, 12.
Doublets, 13.
with Buttons, 14.
and Cuffs, 15.
Thoraces, 13.
cum Globulis, 14.
& Manicis, 15.
Breeches, 16.
sometimes with Ribbons, 17.
Caligas, 16.
aliquando cum Lemniscis, 17.
Stockins, 18. Tibialia, 18.
Gloves, 19.
78 Muntero Caps, 20. &c.
Chirothecas, 19.
Amiculum, 20. &c.
So the Furrier
maketh Furred Garments
of Furs.
Sic Pellio
facit Pellicia
è Pellibus.


The Shoemaker.


Chapter 63

The Shoemaker, 1.
maketh Slippers, 7.
Shoes, 8.
(in which is seen
above, the Upper-leather,
beneath the Sole,
and on both sides
the Latchets)
Boots, 9.
and High Shoes, 10.
of Leather, 5.
(which is cut with
a Cutting-knife), 6.
by means of an Awl, 2.
and Lingel, 3.
upon a Last, 4.
Sutor, 1.
conficit Crepidas (Sandalia,) 7.
Calceos, 8.
(in quibus spectatur
superne Obstragulum,
inferne Solea,
et utrinque
Ocreas, 9.
et Perones, 10.
e Corio, 5.
(quod discinditur
Scalpro Sutorio, 6.)
ope Subulæ, 2.
et Fili picati, 3.
super Modum, 4.


The Carpenter.

Faber lignarius.

Chapter 64

We have seen Man’s food
and clothing:
now his Dwelling followeth.
Hominis victum
& amictum, vidimus:
sequitur nunc Domicilium ejus.
At first they dwelt
in Caves, 1. then in
Booths or Huts, 2.
and then again in Tents, 3.
at the last in Houses.
Primò habitabant
in Specubus, 1. deinde in
Tabernaculis vel Tuguriis, 2.
tum etiam in Tentoriis, 3.
demum in Domibus.
The Woodman
felleth and heweth down
Trees, 5. with an Ax, 4.
the Boughs, 6. remaining.
sternit & truncat
Arbores, 5. Securi, 4.
remanentibus Sarmentis, 6.
He cleaveth Knotty Wood
with a Wedge, 7.
which he forceth in
with a Beetle, 8.
and maketh Wood-stacks, 9.
Findit Nodosum,
Lignum Cuneo, 7.
quem adigit
Tudite, 8.
& componit Strues, 9.
The Carpenter
squareth Timber
with a Chip-Ax, 10.
80 whence Chips, 11. fall,
and saweth it with a Saw, 12.
where the Saw-dust, 13.
falleth down.
Faber Lignarius
ascit Ascia, 10.
unde Assulæ, 11. cadunt,
& serrat Serrâ, 12.
ubi Scobs, 13.
Afterwards he lifteth
the Beam upon Tressels, 14.
by the help of a Pully, 15.
fasteneth it
with Cramp-irons, 16.
and marketh it out
with a Line, 17.
Post elevat
Tignum super Canterios, 14· 
ope Trochleæ, 15.
Ansis, 16.
& lineat
Amussi, 17.
Thus he frameth
the Walls together, 18.
and fasteneth the great pieces
with Pins, 19.
Tum compaginat
Parietes, 18.
& configit trabes
Clavis trabalibus, 19.


The Mason.

Faber Murarius

Chapter 65

The Mason, 1.
layeth a Foundation,
and buildeth Walls, 2.
Faber Murarius, 1.
ponit Fundamentum,
& struit Muros, 2.
Either of Stones
which the Stone-digger
getteth out of the Quarry, 3.
81 and the Stone-cutter, 4.
squareth by a Rule, 5.
Sive è Lapidibus,
quos Lapidarius
eruit in Lapicidina, 3.
& Latomus, 4.
conquadrat ad Normam, 5.
Or of Bricks, 6.
which are made
of Sand and Clay
steeped in water,
and are burned in fire.
Sive è Lateribus, 6.
qui formantur,
ex Arena & Luto,
aquâ intritis
& excoquuntur igne.
Afterwards he plaistereth it
with Lime,
by means of a Trowel,   
and garnisheth with
a Rough-cast, 8.
Dein crustat
ope Trullæ, 7.
& vestit
Tectorio, 8.




Chapter 66

One can carry
as much by thrusting
a Wheel-barrow, 3.
before him,
(having an Harness, 4.
hanging on his neck,)
as two men
can carry on a Colestaff, 1.
or Hand-barrow, 2.
Unus potest ferre
tantum trudendo
Pabonem, 3.
ante se,
Suspensâ a Collo)
quantum duo
possunt ferre Palangâ,   
vel Feretro, 2.
82 But he can do more that
rolleth a Weight laid upon
Rollers, 6. with a Leaver, 5.
Plus autem potest qui
provolvit Molem impositam
Phalangis (Cylindris, 6.)
Vecte, 5.
A Wind-beam, 7.
is a post, which
is turned by going about it.
Ergata, 7.
est columella, quæ
versatur circumeundo.
A Crane, 8.
hath a Hollow-wheel,
in which one walking
draweth weights out of a Ship,
or letteth them down
into a Ship.
Geranium, 8.
habet Tympanum,
cui inambulans quis
extrahit pondera navi,
aut demittit
in navem.
A Rammer, 9.
is used to fasten
Piles, 10.
it is lifted with a Rope
drawn by Pullies, 11.
or with hands
if it have handles, 12.
Fistuca, 9.
adhibetur ad pangendum
Sublicas, 10.
adtollitur Fune
tracto per Trochleas, 11.
vel manibus,
si habet ansas, 12.


A House.


Chapter 67

The Porch, 1.
is before the Door
of the House.
Vestibulum, 1.
est ante Januam
83 The Door hath
a Threshold, 2.
and a Lintel, 3.
and Posts, 4. on both sides.
Janua habet
Limen, 2.
& Superliminare, 3.
& Postes, 4. utrinque.
The Hinges, 5.
are upon the right hand,
upon which the Doors, 6. hang,
the Latch, 7.
and the Bolt, 8.
are on the left hand.
Cardines, 5.
sunt a dextris,
à quibus pendent Fores, 6.
Claustrum, 7.
aut Pessulus, 8.
a sinistris.
Before the House
is a Fore-court, 9.
with a Pavement
of square stones, 10.
born up with Pillars, 11.
in which is the Chapiter, 12.
and the Base, 13.
Sub ædibus
est Cavædium, 9.
Tessellato, 10.
fulcitum Columnis, 11.
in quibus Peristylium, 12.
& Basis, 13.
They go up into the upper
Stories by Greeses, 14.
and Winding-stairs, 15.
Ascenditur in superiores
contignationes per Scalas, 14.
& Cochlidia, 15.
The Windows, 16.
appear on the outside,
and the Grates, 17.
the Galleries, 18.
the Watertables, 19.
the Butteresses, 20.
to bear up the walls.
Fenestræ, 16.
apparent extrinsecus,
& Cancelli (clathra), 17.
Pergulæ, 18.
Suggrundia, 19.
& Fulcra, 20.
fulciendis muris.
On the top is the Roof, 21.
covered with Tyles, 22.
or Shingles, 23.
which lie upon Laths, 24.
and these upon Rafters, 25.
In summo est Tectum, 21.
contectum Imbricibus (tegulis), 22.
vel Scandulis, 23.
quæ incumbunt Tigillis, 24.
hæc Tignis, 25.
The Eaves, 26.
adhere to the Roof.
Tecto adhæret
Stillicidium, 26.
The place without a Roof
is called an open Gallery, 27.
Locus sine Tecto
dicitur Subdiale, 27.
In the Roof are
Jettings out, 28.
and Pinnacles, 29.
In Tecto sunt
Meniana, 28.
& Coronides, 29.


A Mine.


Chapter 68

Miners, 1.
go into the Grave, 2.
by a Stick, 3. or by Ladders, 4.
with Lanthorns, 5.
and dig out with a Pick, 6.
the Oar,
which being put in Baskets, 7.
is drawn out with a Rope, 8.
by means of a Turn, 9.
and is carried
to the Melting-house, 10.
where it is forced with fire,
that the Metal may run out, 12.
the Dross, 11.
is thrown aside.
Metalli fossores, 1.
ingrediuntur Puteum fodinæ, 2.
Bacillo, 3. sive Gradibus, 4.
cum Lucernis, 5.
& effodiunt Ligone, 6.
terram Metallicam,
quæ imposita Corbibus, 7.
extrahitur Fune, 8.
ope Machinæ tractoriæ, 9.
& defertur
in Ustrinam, 10.
ubi urgetur igne,
ut Metallum, 12. profluat   
Scoriæ, 11. abjiciuntur


The Blacksmith.

Faber Ferrarius.

Chapter 69

The Blacksmith, 1.
in his Smithy (or Forge), 2.
bloweth the fire
with a pair of Bellows, 3.
which he bloweth
with his Feet, 4.
and so heateth the Iron:
Faber ferrarius, 1.
in Ustrina (Fabricâ), 2.
inflat ignem
Folle, 3.
quem adtollit
Pede, 4.
atq; ita candefacit Ferrum:
And then he taketh it out
with the Tongs, 5.
layeth it upon the Anvile, 6.
and striketh it
with an Hammer, 7.
where the sparks, 8. fly off.
Deinde eximit
Forcipe, 5.
imponit Incudi, 6.
& cudit
Malleo, 7.
ubi Stricturæ, 8. exiliunt.
And thus are hammer’d out,
Nails, 9.
Horse-shoes, 10.
Cart-strakes, 11.
Chains, 12.
Plates, Locks and Keys,
Hinges, &c.
Et sic excuduntur,
Clavi, 9.
Solea, 10.
Canthi, 11.
Catenæ, 12.
Laminæ, Seræ cum Clavibus,
Cardines, &c.
He quencheth hot Irons
in a Cool-trough.
Restinguit cadentia,
Ferramenta in Lacu.


The Box-maker and the Turner.

Scrinarius & Tornator.

Chapter 70

The Box-maker, 1.
smootheth hewen Boards, 2.
with a Plain, 3.
upon a work-board, 4.
he maketh them very smooth
with a little-plain, 5.
he boreth them thorow
with an Augre, 6.
carveth them
with a Knife, 7.
fasteneth them together
with Glew and Cramp-Irons, 8.
and maketh Tables, 9.
Boards, 10.
Chests, 11. &c.
Arcularius, 1.
edolat Asseres, 2.
Runcina, 3.
in Tabula, 4.
Planula, 5.
perforat (terebrat)
Terebra, 6.
Cultro, 7.
Glutine & Subscudibus, 8.
& facit Tabulas, 9.
Mensas, 10.
Arcus (Cistas), 11. &c.
The Turner, 12.
sitting over the Treddle, 13.
turneth with a Throw, 15.
87 upon a Turner’s Bench, 14.
Bowls, 16. Tops, 17,
Puppets, 18. and
such like Turners Work.
Tornio, 12.
sedens in Insili, 13.
tornat Torno, 15.
super Scamno Tornatorio, 14.
Globos, 16. Conos, 17.
Icunculas, 18. &
similia Toreumata.


The Potter.


Chapter 71

The Potter, 1.
sitting over a Wheel, 2.
maketh Pots, 4.
Pitchers, 5.
Pipkins, 6.
Platters, 7.
Pudding-pans, 8.
Juggs, 9.
Lids, 10. &c.
of Potter’s Clay, 3.
afterwards he baketh them
in an Oven, 11.
and glazeth them
with White Lead.
Figulus, 1.
sedens super Rota, 2.
format Ollas, 4.
Urceos, 5.
Tripodes, 6.
Patinas, 7.
Vasa testacea, 8.
Fidelias, 9.
Opercula, 10. &c.
ex Argillâ, 3.
postea excoquit
in Furno, 11.
& incrustat
A broken Pot affordeth
Pot-sheards, 1
Fracta Olla dat
Testas, 12.


The Parts of a House.

Partes Domus

Chapter 72

A House is divided
into inner Rooms,
such as are the Entry, 1.
the Stove, 2.
the Kitchen, 3.
the Buttery, 4.
the Dining Room, 5.
the Gallery, 6.
the Bed Chamber, 7.
with a Privy, 8.
made by it.
Domus distinguitur
in Conclavia,
ut sunt Atrium, 1.
Hypocaustum, 2.
Culina, 3.
Cella Penuaria, 4.
Cœnaculum, 5.
Camera, 6.
Cubiculum, 7.
cum Secessu (Latrina), 8.
Baskets, 9.
are of use for
carrying things
and Chests, 10. (which are
made fast with a Key, 11.)
for keeping them.
Corbes, 9.
rebus transferendis,
Arcæ, 10. (quæ
Clavâ, 11. recluduntur)
adservandis illis.
Under the Roof,
is the Floor, 12.
Sub Tecto,
est Solum (Pavimentum), 12.
In the Yard, 13.
is a Well, 14.
a Stable, 15.
89 and a Bath, 16.
In Area, 13.
Puteus, 14.
Stabulum, 15.
cum Balneo, 16.
Under the House
is the Cellar, 17.
Sub Domo
est Cella, 17.


The Stove with the Bed-room.

Hypocaustum cum Dormitorio.

Chapter 73

The Stove, 1.
is beautified
with an Arched Roof, 2.
and wainscoted Walls, 3.
Hypocaustum, 1.
Laqueari, 2.
& tabulatis Parietibus, 3.
It is enlightened
with Windows, 4.
Fenestris, 4.
It is heated
with an Oven, 5.
Fornace, 5.
Its Utensils are
Benches, 6.
Stools, 7.
Tables, 8.
with Tressels, 9.
Footstools, 10.
and Cushions, 11.
Ejus Utensilia sunt
Scamna, 6.
Sellæ, 7.
Mensæ, 8.
cum Fulcris, 9.
ac Scabellis, 10.
& Culcitris, 11.
90 There are also Tapestries
hanged, 12.
Appenduntur etiam
Tapetes, 12.
For soft lodging
in a Sleeping-room, 13.
there is a Bed, 14.
spread on a Bed-sted, 15.
upon a Straw-pad, 16.
with Sheets, 17.
and Cover-lids, 18.
Pro levi cubatu,
in Dormitorio, 13.
est Lectus, (Cubile) 14.
stratus in Sponda, 15.
super Stramentum, 16.
cum Lodicibus, 17.
& Stragulis, 18.
The Bolster, 19.
is under ones head.
Cervical, 19.
est sub capite.
The Bed is covered
with a Canopy, 20.
Canopeo, 20.
Lectus tegitur.
A Chamber-pot, 21.
is for making water in.
Matula, 21.
est vesicæ levandæ.




Chapter 74

Where Springs are wanting,
Wells, 1. are digged
and they are compassed about
with a Brandrith, 2.
lest any one fall in.
Ubi Fontes deficiunt,
Putei, 1. effodiuntur,
& circumdantur
Crepidine, 2.
ne quis incidat.
Thence is water drawn
91 with Buckets, 3.
hanging either at a Pole, 4.
or a Rope, 5.
or a Chain, 6.
and that either by a Swipe, 7.
or a Windle, 8.
or a Turn, 9.
with a Handle
or a Wheel, 10.
or to conclude,
by a Pump, 11.
Inde aqua hauritur
Urnis (situlis), 3.
pendentibus vel Pertica, 4.
vel Fune, 5.
vel Catena, 6.
idque aut Tollenone, 7.
aut Girgillo, 8.
aut Cylindro, 9.
aut Rota (tympano), 10.
aut denique
Antliâ, 11.


The Bath.


Chapter 75

He that desireth to be wash’d
in cold water,
goeth down into a River, 1.
Qui cupit lavari
aquâ frigidâ,
descendit in Fluvium, 1.
In a Bathing-house, 2.
we wash off the filth
either sitting in a Tub, 3.
or going up
into the Hot-house, 4.
92 and we are rubbed
with a Pumice-stone, 6.
or a Hair-cloth, 5.
In Balneario, 2.
abluimus squalores,
sive sedentes in Labro, 3.
sive conscendentes
in Sudatorium, 4.
& defricamur
Pumice, 6.
aut Cilicio, 5.
In the Stripping-room, 7.
we put off our clothes,
and are tyed about
with an Apron, 8.
In Apodyterio, 7.
exuimus Vestes,
& præcingimur
Castula (Subligari), 8.
We cover our Head
with a Cap, 9.
and put our feet
into a Bason, 10.
Tegimus caput
Pileolo, 9.
& imponimus pedes
Telluvio, 10.
The Bath-woman, 11.
reacheth water in a Bucket, 12.
drawn out of the Trough, 13.
into which it runneth
out of Pipes, 14.
Balneatrix, 11.
ministrat aquam Situla, 12.
haustam ex Alveo, 13.
in quem defluit
è Canalibus, 14.
The Bath-keeper, 15.
lanceth with a Lancet, 16.
and by applying
Cupping-glasses, 17.
he draweth the Blood
betwixt the skin and the flesh,
which he wipeth away
with a Spunge, 18.
Balneator, 15.
scarificat Scalpro, 16.
& applicando
Cucurbitas, 17.
extrahit Sanguinem
quem abstergit
Spongiâ, 18.


The Barbers Shop.


Chapter 76

The Barber, 1.
in the Barbers-shop, 2.
cutteth off the Hair
and the Beard
with a pair of Sizzars, 3.
or shaveth with a Razor,
which he taketh
out of his Case, 4.
Tonsor, 1.
in Tonstrina, 2.
tondet Crines
& Barbam
Forcipe, 3.
vel radit Novaculâ,
quam depromit
è Theca, 4.
And he washeth one
over a Bason, 5.
with Suds running
out of a Laver, 6.
and also with Sope, 7.
and wipeth him
with a Towel, 8.
combeth him with a Comb, 9.
and curleth him
with a Crisping Iron, 10.
Et lavat
super Pelvim, 5.
Lixivio defluente
è Gulturnio, 6.
ut & Sapone, 7.
& tergit
Linteo, 8.
pectit Pectine, 9.
Calamistro, 10.
Sometimes he cutteth a Vein
with a Pen-knife, 11.
where the Blood
spirteth out, 12.
Interdum secat Venam
Scalpello, 11.
ubi Sanguis
propullulat, 12.
94 The Chirurgeon cureth
Chirurgus curat


The Stable.


Chapter 77

The Horse-keeper, 1.
cleaneth the Stable
from Dung, 2.
Stabularius (Equiso), 1.
purgat Stabulum
a Fimo, 2.
He tyeth a Horse, 3.
with a Halter, 4.
to the Manger, 5.
or if he apt to bite,
he maketh him fast
with a Muzzle, 6.
Alligat Equum, 3.
Capistro, 4.
ad Præsepe, 5.
aut si mordax
Fiscella, 6.
Then he streweth Litter, 7.
under him.
Deinde substernit
Stramenta, 7.
He winnoweth Oats
with a Van, 8.
(being mixt with Chaff,
and taken out
of a Chest, 10.)
and with them feedeth the Horse,
as also with Hay, 9.
Ventilat Avenam,
Vanno, 8.
(Paleis mixtam,
ac depromptam
à Cista Pabulatoria, 10.)
eâque pascit equum,
ut & Fœno, 9.
95 Afterwards he leadeth him
to the Watering-trough, 11.
to water.
Postea ducit
ad Aquarium, 11.
Then he rubbeth him
with a Cloth, 12.
combeth him
with a Curry-comb, 15.
covereth him
with an Housing-cloth, 14.
and looketh upon his Hoofs
whether the Shoes, 13.
be fast with the Nails.
Tum detergit
Panno, 12.
Strigili, 15.
Gausape, 14.
& inspicit Soleas,
an Calcei ferrei, 13.
firmis Clavis hæreant.




Chapter 78

A Dial
measureth Hours.
dimetitur Horas.
A Sun-dial, 1.
sheweth by the shadow
of the Pin, 2.
what a Clock it is;
either on a Wall,
or a Compass, 3,
Solarium, 1.
ostendit umbrâ
Gnomonis, 2.
quota sit Hora;
sive in Pariete,
sive in Pyxide Magnetica, 3.
An Hour-glass, 4.
96 sheweth the four parts of an hour
by the running of Sand,
heretofore of water.
Clepsydra, 4.
ostendit partes horæ quatuor,
fluxu Arenæ,
olim aquæ.
A Clock, 5.
numbereth also
the Hours of the Night,
by the turning of the Wheels,
the greatest whereof
is drawn by a Weight, 6.
and draweth the rest.
Automaton, 5.
numerat etiam
Nocturnas Horas,
circulatione Rotarum,
quarum maxima
trahitur à Pondere, 6.
& trahit cæteras.
Then either the Bell, 7.
by its sound, being struck on
by the Hammer,
or the Hand, 8. without,
by its motion about
sheweth the hour.
Tum vel Campana, 7.
sonitu suo, percussâ
a Malleolo,
vel Index extra
Circuitione sua
indicat horam.


The Picture.


Chapter 79

Pictures, 1.
delight the Eyes
and adorn Rooms.
Picturæ, 1.
oblectant Oculos
& ornant Conclavia.
The Painter, 2.
painteth an Image
97 with a Pencil, 3.
in a Table, 4.
upon a Case-frame, 5.
holding his Pollet, 6.
in his left hand,
on which are the Paints
which were ground
by the Boy, 7. on a Marble.
Pictor, 2.
pingit Effigiem
Penicilio, 3.
in Tabula, 4.
super Pluteo, 5.
tenens Orbem Pictorium, 6.
in sinistra,
in quo Pigmenta
quæ terebantur
à puero, 7. in marmore.
The Carver
and Statuary
carve Statues, 8.
of Wood and Stone.
& Statuarius
exsculpunt Statuas, 8.
è Ligno & Lapide.
The Graver
and the Cutter
grave Shapes, 10.
and Characters
with a Graving Chesil, 9.
in Wood, Brass,
and other Metals.
& Scalptor
insculpit Figuras, 10.
& Characteres,
Cœlo, 9.
Ligno, Æri,
aliisque Metallis.




Chapter 80

Looking-glasses, 1.
98 are provided that Men
may see themselves.
Specularia, 1.
parantur, ut homines
intueantur seipsos.
Spectacles, 2.
that he may see better,
who hath a weak sight.
Perspicilla, 2.
ut cernat acius
qui habet visum debilem.
Things afar off are seen
in a Perspective Glass, 3.
as things near at hand.
Remota videntur
per telescopium, 3.
ut proxima.
A Flea appeareth
in a muliplying-glass, 4.
like a little hog.
Pulex, 4.
in Microscopio apparet
ut porcellus.
The Rays of the Sun,
burn wood
through a Burning-glass, 5.
Radii Solis
accendunt ligna
per Vitrum urens, 5.


The Cooper.


Chapter 81

The Cooper, 1.
having an Apron, 2,
tied about him,
maketh Hoops
of Hazel-rods, 3.
upon a cutting-block, 4.
with a Spoke-Shave, 5.
99 and Lags, 6. of Timber,
Vietor, 1.
Præcinctorio, 2.
facit Circulos,
è Virgis Colurnis, 3.
super Sellam incisoriam, 4.
Scalpro bimanubriato, 5.
& Assulas, 6. ex Ligno.
Of Lags he maketh
Hogsheads, 7. and Pipes, 8.
with two Heads;
and Tubs, 9.
Soes, 10.
Flaskets, 11.
Buckets, 12.
with one Bottom.
Ex Assulis conficit
Dolia, 7. & Cupas, 8.
Fundo bino;
tum Lacus, 9.
Labra, 10.
Pitynas [Trimodia], 11.
& Situlas, 12.
fundo uno.
Then he bindeth them
with Hoops, 13.
which he tyeth fast
with small Twigs, 15.
by means of a Cramp-iron, 14.
and he fitteth them on
with a Mallet, 16.
and a Driver, 17.
Postea vincit
Circulis, 13.
quos ligat
Viminibus, 15.
ope Falcis vietoriæ, 14.
& aptat
Tudite, 16.
ac Tudicula, 17.


The Roper, and the Cordwainer.

Restio, & Lorarius.

Chapter 82

The Roper, 1.
100 twisteth Cords, 2.
of Tow, or Hemp, 4.
(which he wrappeth about
by the turning of a Wheel, 3.
Restio, 1.
contorquet Funes, 2.
è Stupa, 4. vel Cannabi,
quam circumdat
agitatione Rotulæ, 3.
Thus are made
first Cords, 5.
then Ropes, 6.
and at last, Cables, 7.
Sic fiunt,
primò Funiculi, 5.
tum Restes, 6.
tandem Rudentes, 7.
The Cord-wainer, 8.
cutteth great Thongs, 10.
Bridles, 11.
Girdles, 12.
Sword-belts, 13.
Pouches, 14.
Port-mantles, 15. &c.
out of a Beast-hide, 9.
Lorarius, 8.
scindit Loramenta, 10.
Fræna, 11.
Cingula, 12.
Baltheos, 13.
Crumenas, 14.
Hippoperas, 15., &c.
de corio bubulo, 9.


The Traveller.


Chapter 83

A Traveller, 1.
beareth on his shoulders
101 in a Budget, 2.
those things
which his Satchel, 3.
or Pouch, 4. cannot hold.
Viator, 1.
portat humeris
in Bulga, 2.
quæ non capit
Funda, 3.
vel Marsupium, 4.
He is covered
with a Cloak, 5.
Lacernâ, 5.
He holdeth a Staff, 6.
in his hand wherewith
to bear up himself.
Tenet Baculum, 6.
Manu quo
se fulciat.
He hath need of
Provision for the way,
as also of a pleasant and
merry Companion, 7.
Opus habet
ut & fido &
facundo Comite, 7.
Let him not forsake
the High-road, 9.
for a Foot-way, 8.
unless it be a beaten Path.
Non deserat
Viam regiam  
propter Semitam, 8.
nisi sit Callis tritus.
By-ways, 10.
and places where two ways meet, 11.
deceive and lead men aside
into uneven-places, 12.
so do not By-paths, 13.
and Cross-ways, 14.
Avia, 10.
& Bivia, 11.
fallunt & seducunt,
in Salebras, 12.
non æquè Tramites, 13.
& Compita, 14,
Let him therefore enquire
of those he meeteth, 15.
which way he must go;
and let him take heed
of Robbers, 16.
as in the way, so also
in the Inn, 17.
where he lodgeth all Night.
Sciscitet igitur
obvios, 15.
quà sit eundum;
& caveat
Prædones, 16.
ut in viâ, sic etiam
in Diversorio, 17.
ubi pernoctat.


The Horse-man.


Chapter 84

The Horse-man, 1.
setteth a Saddle, 2.
on his Horse, 3.
and girdeth it on
with a Girth, 4.
Eques, 1.
imponit Equo, 2.
Ephippium, 3.
idque succingit
Cingulo, 4.
He layeth a Saddle-cloth, 5.
also upon him.
Insternit etiam
Dorsuale, 5.
He decketh him with
Trappings, a Fore-stall, 6.
a Breast-cloth, 7.
and a Crupper, 8.
Ornat eum
Phaleris, Frontali, 6.
Antilena, 7.
& Postilena, 8,
Then he getteth upon
his Horse, putteth his feet
into the Stirrops, 9.
the Bridle-rein, 10. 11.
in his left hand,
wherewith he guideth
and holdeth the Horse.
Deinde insilit in
Equum, indit pedes
Stapedibus, 9.
capessit Lorum
(habenam), 10. Freni, 11.
quo flectit,
& retinet Equum.
Then he putteth to
his Spurs, 12.
103 and setteth him on
with a Switch, 13.
and holdeth him in
with a Musrol, 14.
Tum admovet
Calcaria, 12.
Virgula, 13.
& coërcet
Postomide, 14.
The Holsters, 15.
hang down from the Pummel
of the Saddle, 16.
in which the Pistols, 17.
are put.
Bulgæ, 15.
pendent ex Apice
Ephippii, 16.
quibus Sclopi, 17.
The Rider is clad in
a short Coat, 18.
his Cloak being tyed
behind him, 19.
Ipse Eques induitur
Chlamyde, 18.
Lacernâ revinctâ, 19.
à tergo.
A Post, 20.
is carried on Horseback
at full Gallop.
Veredarius, 20.
fertur Equo




Chapter 85

We are carried on a Sled, 1.
over Snow and Ice.
Vehimur Trahâ, 1.
super Nivibus & Glacie.
A Carriage with one Wheel,
is called a Wheelbarrow, 2.
104 with two Wheels, a Cart, 3.
with four Wheels, a Wagon,
which is either
a Timber-wagon, 4.
or a Load-wagon, 5.
Vehiculum unirotum,
dicitur Pabo, 2.
birotum, Carrus, 3.
quadrirotum, Currus,
qui vel
Sarracum, 4.
vel Plaustrum, 5.
The parts of the Wagon are,
the Neep (or draught-tree), 6.
the Beam, 7.
the Bottom, 8.
and the Sides, 9.
Partes Currûs sunt,
Temo, 6.
Jugum, 7.
Compages, 8.
Spondæ, 9.
Then the Axle-trees, 10.
about which the Wheels run,
the Lin-pins, 11.
and Axletree-staves, 12.
being fastened before them.
Tum Axes, 10.
circa quos Rotæ currunt,
Paxillis, 11.
& Obicibus, 12.
The Nave, 13. is
the groundfast of the Wheel, 14.
from which come
twelve Spokes, 15.
Modiolus, 13. est
Basis Rotæ, 14.
ex quo prodeunt
duodecim Radii, 15.
The Ring encompasseth
these, which is made
of six Felloes, 16.
and as many Strakes, 17.
Hampiers and Hurdles, 18,
are set in a Wagon.
Orbile ambit
hos, compositum
è sex Absidibus, 16.
& totidem Canthis, 17.
Corbes & Crates, 18.
imponuntur Currui.


Carrying to and fro.


Chapter 86

The Coach-man, 1.
joineth a Horse fit to match
a Saddle-horse, 2, 3.
to the Coach-tree,
with Thongs or Chains, 5.
hanging down from
the Collar, 4.
Auriga, 1.
jungit Parippum, 2.
Sellario, 3.
ad Temonem,
Loris vel Catenis, 5.
dependentibus de
Helcio, 4.
Then he sitteth upon
the Saddle-horse,
and driveth them that go
before him, 6.
with a Whip, 7.
and guideth them
with a String, 8   
Deinde insidet
agit ante se
antecessores, 6.
Scuticâ, 7.
& flectit
Funibus, 8.
He greaseth the Axle-tree
with Axle-tree grease
out of a Grease-pot, 9.
and stoppeth the wheel
with a Trigen, 10.
106 in a steep descent.
Ungit Axem
ex vase unguentorio, 9.
& inhibet rotam
Sufflamine, 10.
in præcipiti descensu.
And thus the Coach is driven
along the Wheel-ruts, 11.
Et sic aurigatur
per Orbitas, 11.
Great Persons are carryed
with six Horses, 12.
by two Coachmen,
in a Hanging-wagon,
which is called
a Coach, 13.
Magnates vehuntur
Sejugibus, 12.
duobus Rhedariis,
Curru pensili,
qui vocatur
Carpentum (Pilentum), 13.
Others with two Horses, 14.
in a Chariot, 15.
Alii Bijugibus, 14.
Essedo, 15.
Horse Litters, 16, 17.
are carried by two Horses.
Arceræ, 16. & Lacticæ, 17.
portantur à duobus Equis.
They use
instead of Waggons,
thorow Hills
that are not passable, 18.
Jumentis Clitellariis,
loco Curruum,
per montes
invios, 18.


Passing over Waters.

Transitus Aquarum

Chapter 87

Lest he that is to pass
over a River should be wet,
107 Bridges, 1.
were invented for Carriages,
and Foot-bridges, 2.
for Foot-men.
flumen ne madefiat,
Pontes, 1.
excogitati sunt pro Vehiculis
& Ponticuli, 2.
pro Peditibus.
If a river
have a Foord, 3.
it is waded over, 4.
Si Flumen
habet Vadum, 3.
vadatur, 4.
Flotes, 5. also are made
of Timber pinned together;
or Ferry-boats, 6.
of planks laid close together
for fear they should
receive Water.
Rates, 5. etiam struuntur
ex compactis tignis:
vel Pontones, 6.
ex trabibus consolidatis,
ne excipiant aquam.
Besides Scullers, 7.
are made, which
are rowed with an Oar, 8.
or Pole, 9.
or haled with
an Haling-rope, 10.
Porrò Lintres (Lembi), 7.
fabricantur, qui
aguntur Remo, 8.
vel Conto, 9.
aut trahuntur
Remulco, 10.




Chapter 88

Men are wont also
to swim over Waters
108 upon a bundle of flags, 1.
and besides upon blown
Beast-bladders, 2.
and after, by throwing
their Hands and Feet, 3.
Solent etiam
tranare aquas
super scirpeum fascem, 1.
porrò super inflatas
boum Vesicas, 2.
deinde liberè jactatu
Manuum Pedumque, 3.
And at last they learned
to tread the water, 4.
being plunged
up to the girdle-stead,
and carrying
their Cloaths upon their head.
Tandem didicerunt
calcare aquam, 4.
cingulo tenus
& gestantes
Vestes supra caput.
A Diver, 5.
can swim also under
the water like a Fish.
Urinator, 5.
etiam natare potest sub
aquâ, ut Piscis.


A Galley.

Navis actuaria.

Chapter 89

A Ship furnished
with Oars, 1.
is a Barge, 2.
or a Foyst, &c.
in which the Rowers, 3.
109 sitting on Seats, 4.
by the Oar-rings,
row, by striking the water
with the Oars, 5.
Navìs instructa
Remis, 1.
est Uniremis, 2.
vel Biremis, &c.
in quâ Remiges, 3.
considentes pre Transtra, 4.
ad Scalmos,
remigant pellendo aquam
The Ship-master, 6.
standing in the Fore-castle,
and the Steers-man, 7.
sitting at the Stern,
and holding the Rudder, 8.
steer the Vessel.
Proreta, 6.
stans in Prora,
& Gubernator, 7.
sedens in Puppi,
tenensque Clavum, 8.
gubernant Navigium.


A Merchant-ship.

Navis oneraria.

Chapter 90

A Ship, 1.
is driven onward
not by Oars, but by the only
force of the Winds.
Navigium, 1.
non remis, sed solâ
vi Ventorum.
In it is a Mast, 2. set up,
fastened with Shrowds, 3.
on all sides to
the main-chains.
110 to which the Sail-yards, 4.
are tied,
and the Sails, 5. to these,
which are spread open, 6.
to the wind,
and are hoysed by Bowlings, 7.
In illo Malus, 2. erigitur,
firmatus Funibus, 3.
undique ad
Oras Navis,
cui annectuntur
Antennæ, 4.
his, Vela, 5.
quæ expanduntur, 6.
ad Ventum
& Versoriis, 7. versantur.
The Sails are
the Main-sail, 8.
the Trinket, or Fore-sail, 9.
the Misen-sail or Poop-sail, 10.
Vela sunt
Artemon, 8.
Dolon, 9.
& Epidromus, 10.
The Beak, 11.
is in the Fore-deck.
Rostrum, 11.
est in Prora.
The Ancient, 12.
is placed in the Stern.
Signum (vexillum), 12.
ponitur in Puppi.
On the Mast
is the Foretop, 13.
the Watch-tower of the Ship
and over the Fore-top
a Vane, 14.
to shew which way
the Wind standeth.
In Malo
est Corbis, 13.
Specula Navis
& supra Galeam
Aplustre, 14.
Ventorum Index.
The ship is stayed
with an Anchor, 15.
Navis sistitur
Anchorâ, 15.
The depth is fathomed
with a Plummet, 16.
Profunditas exploratur
Bolide, 16.
Passengers walk up and down
the Decks, 17.
Navigantes deambulant
in Tabulato, 17.
The Sea men run to and fro
through the Hatches, 18.
Nautæ cursitant
per Foros, 18.
And thus, even Seas
are passed over.
Atque ita, etiam Maria




Chapter 91

When a Storm, 1.
ariseth on a sudden,
they strike Sail, 2.
lest the Ship should be
dashed against Rocks, 3 or
light upon Shelves, 4.
Cum Procella, 1.
oritur repentè
contrahunt Vela, 2.
ne Navis
ad Scopulos, 3. allidatur, aut
incidat in Brevia (Syrtes), 4.
If they cannot hinder her
they suffer Ship-wreck, 5.
Si non possunt prohibere
patiuntur Naufragium, 5.
And then the men,
the Wares, and all things
are miserably lost.
Tum Homines,
Merces, omnia
miserabiliter pereunt.
Nor doth the Sheat-anchor, 6.
being cast with a Cable,
do any good.
Neque hic Sacra anchora, 6.
jacta quidquam adjuvat.
Some escape,
either on a Plank, 7.
and by swimming,
or in the Boat, 8.
Quidam evadunt,
vel tabula, 7.
ac enatando,
vel Scapha, 8.
Part of the Wares,
with the dead folks,
is carried out of the Sea, 9.
upon the Shoars.
Pars Mercium
cum mortuis
a Mari, 9.
in littora defertur.



Ars Scriptoria.

Chapter 92

The Ancients writ
in Tables done over with wax
with a brazen Poitrel, 1.
with the sharp end, 2. whereof
letters were engraven
and rubbed out again
with the broad end, 3.
Veteres scribebant
in Tabellis ceratis
æneo Stilo, 1.
cujus parte cuspidata, 2.
exarabantur literæ,
rursum vero obliterabantur
they writ Letters
with a small Reed, 4.
Literas pingebant
subtili Calamo, 4.
We use a Goose-quill, 5.
the Stem, 6. of which
we make
with a Pen-knife, 7.
then we dip the Neb
in an Ink-horn, 8.
which is stopped
with a Stopple, 9.
and we put our Pens,
into a Pennar, 10.
Nos utimur Anserina Penna, 5.
cujus Caulem, 6.
Scalpello, 7.
tum intingimus Crenam
in Atramentario, 8.
quod obstruitur
Operculo, 9.
& Pennas
recondimus in Calamario, 10.
We dry a Writing
113 with Blotting-paper,
or Calis-sand
out of a Sand-box, 11.
Siccamus Scripturam
Chartâ bibulâ,
vel Arenâ scriptoria,
ex Theca Pulveraria, 11.
And we indeed
write from the left hand
towards the right, 12.
the Hebrews
from the right hand
towards the left, 13.
the Chinese and other Indians,
from the top
downwards, 14.
Et nos quidem
scribimus â sinistra
dextrorsum, 12.
â dextrâ
sinistrorsum, 13.
Chinenses & Indi alii,
â summo
deorsum, 14.




Chapter 93

The Ancients used
Beech-Boards, 1.
or Leaves, 2.
as also Barks, 3. of Trees;
especially of an Egyptian Shrub,
which was called Papyrus.
Veteres utebantur
Tabulis Faginis, 1.
aut Foliis, 2.
ut & Libris, 3. Arborum;
præsertim Arbusculæ Ægyptiæ,
cui nomen erat Papyrus.
Now Paper is in use
which the Paper-maker
114 maketh in a Paper-mill, 4.
of Linen rags, 5.
stamped to Mash, 6.
which being taken up
in Frames, 7.
he spreadeth into Sheets, 8.
and setteth them in the Air
that they may be dryed.
Nunc Charta est in usu,
quam Chattopœus
in mola Papyracea, 4. conficit
è Linteis vetustis, 5.
in Pulmentum contusis, 6.
quod haustum
Normulis, 7.
diducit in Plagulas, 8.
exponitque aëri,
ut siccentur.
Twenty-five of these
make a Quire, 9.
twenty Quires a Ream, 10.
and ten of these
a Bale of Paper, 11.
Harum XXV.
faciunt Scapum, 9.
XX. Scapi Volumen minus, 10.
horum X.
Volumen majus, 11.
That which is to last long
is written on
Parchment, 12.
Duraturum diu
scribitur in
Membrana, 12.




Chapter 94

The Printer hath
metal Letters
in a large number
put into Boxes, 5.
Typographus habet
Typos Metallos,
magno numero
distributos per Loculamenta, 5.
The Compositor, 1.
115 taketh them out one by one
and according to the Copy,
(which he hath fastened
before him in a Visorum, 2.)
composeth words
in a Composing-stick, 3.
till a Line be made;
he putteth these in a Gally, 4.
till a Page, 6. be made,
and these again
in a Form, 7.
and he locketh them up
in Iron Chases, 8.
with Coyns, 9.
lest they should drop out,
and putteth them under
the Press, 10.
Typotheta, 1.
eximit illos singulatim,
& secundum exemplar,
(quod habet præfixum
sibi Retinaculo, 2.)
componit Verba
Gnomone, 3.
donec versus fiat;
hos indit Formæ, 4.
donec Pagina, 6. fiat;
has iterum
Tabulâ compositoriâ, 7.
coarctaque eos
Marginibus ferreis, 8.
ope Cochlearum, 9.
ne dilabantur,
ac subjicit
Prelo, 10.
Then the Press-man
beateth it over
with Printers Ink,
by means of Balls, 11.
spreadeth upon it the Papers
put in the Frisket, 12.
which being put under
the Spindle, 14.
on the Coffin, 13.
and pressed down with
a Bar, 15. he maketh
to take impression.
Tum Impressor
Atramento impressorio
ope Pilarum, 11.
super imponit Chartas
inditas Operculo, 12.
quas subditas
Trochleæ, 14.
in Tigello, 13.
& impressas
Suculâ, 15. facit
imbibere typos.


The Booksellers Shop.


Chapter 95

The Bookseller, 1
selleth Books
in a Booksellers Shop, 2.
of which he writeth
a Catalogue, 3.
Bibliopola, 1.
vendit Libros
in Bibliopolio, 2.
quorum conscribit
Catalogum, 3.
The Books are placed
on Shelves, 4.
and are laid open for use
upon a Desk, 5.
Libri disponuntur
per Repositoria, 4.
& exponuntur ad usum,
super Pluteum, 5.
A Multitude of Books
is called a Library, 6.
Multitudo Librorum
vocatur Bibliotheca, 6.


The Book-binder.


Chapter 96

In times past they glewed
Paper to Paper,
and rolled them up together
into one Roll, 1.
Olim agglutinabant
Chartam Chartæ,
convolvebantque eas
in unum Volumen, 1.
At this day
the Book-binder
bindeth Books,
whilst he wipeth, 2. over
Papers steept
in Gum-water, and then
foldeth them together, 3.
beateth with a hammer, 4.
then stitcheth them up, 5.
presseth them
in a Press, 6.
which hath two Screws, 7.
glueth them on the back,
cutteth off the edges
with a round Knife, 8.
and at last covereth them
with Parchment or Leather, 9.
maketh them handsome,
and setteth on Clasps, 10.
compingit Libros,
dum tergit, 2.
chartas maceratas
aquâ glutinosâ, deinde
complicat, 3.
malleat, 4.
tum consuit, 5.
Prelo, 6.
quod habet duos Cochleas, 7.
conglutinat dorso,
rotundo Cultro, 8.
tandem vestit
Membranâ vel Corio, 9.
& affigit Uncinulos, 10.


A Book.


Chapter 97

A Book
as to its outward shape,
is either in Folio, 1.
or in Quarto, 2.
in Octavo, 3.
in Duodecimo, 4.
either made to open Side-wise, 5.
or Long-wise, 6.
with Brazen Clasps, 7.
or Strings, 8.
and Square-bofles, 9.
quoad exteriorem formam
est vel in Folia, 1.
vel in Quarto, 2.
in Octavo, 3.
in Duodecimo, 4.
vel Columnatus, 5.
vel Linguatus, 6.
cum Æneis Clausuris, 7.
vel Ligulis, 8.
& angularibus Bullis, 9.
Within are Leaves, 10.
with two Pages,
sometimes divided
with Columns, 11. and
Marginal Notes, 12.
Intùs sunt Folia, 10.
duabis Paginis,
aliquando Columnis, 11.
divisa cumq;
Notis Marginalibus, 12.


A School.


Chapter 98

A School, 1.
is a Shop in which
Young Wits are fashion’d
to vertue, and it is
distinguish’d into Forms.
Schola, 1.
est Officina, in quâ
Novelli Animi formantur
ad virtutem, &
distinguitur in Classes.
The Master, 2.
sitteth in a Chair, 3.
the Scholars, 4.
in Forms, 5.
he teacheth, they learn.
Præceptor, 2.
sedet in Cathedra, 3.
Discipuli, 4.
in Subselliis, 5.
ille docet, hi discunt.
Some things
are writ down before them
with Chalk on a Table, 6.
præscribuntur illis
Cretâ in Tabella, 6.
Some sit
at a Table, and write, 7.
he mendeth their Faults, 8.
Quidam sedent
ad Mensam, & scribunt, 7.
ipse corrigit Mendas, 8.
Some stand and rehearse
things committed
to memory, 9.
Quidam stant, & recitant
memoriæ, 9.
Some talk together, 10.
and behave themselves
wantonly and carelessly;
120 these are chastised
with a Ferrula. 11.
and a Rod, 12.
Quidam confabulantur, 10.
ac gerunt se
petulantes, & negligentes;
hi castigantur
Ferulâ (baculo), 11.
& Virgâ, 12.


The Study.


Chapter 99

The Study, 1.
is a place where a Student, 2.
apart from Men,
sitteth alone,
addicted to his Studies,
whilst he readeth Books, 3.
which being within his reach
he layeth open upon a Desk, 4.
and picketh all the best things
out of them
into his own Manual, 5.
or marketh them in them
with a Dash, 6.
or a little Star, 7.
in the Margent.
Museum, 1.
est locus ubi Studiosus, 2.
secretus ab Hominibus,
sedet solus
deditus Studiis,
dum lectitat Libros, 3.
quos penes se
& exponit super Pluteum, 4.
& excerpit optima quæque
ex illis
in Manuale suum, 5.
notat in illis
Liturâ, 6.
vel Asterisco, 7.
ad Margiem.
Being to sit up late,
121 he setteth a Candle, 8.
on a Candlestick, 9.
which is snuffed with Snuffers, 10.
before the Candle,
he placeth a Screen, 11.
which is green, that it may not
hurt his eye-sight;
richer Persons use a Taper,
for a Tallow-candle
stinketh and smoaketh.
elevat Lychnum (Canelam), 8.
in Candelabra, 9.
qui emungitur Emunctorio, 10.
ante Lynchum
collocat Umbraculum, 11.
quod viride est, ne
hebetet oculorum aciem;
opulentiores utuntur Cereo
nam Candela sebacea
fœtet & fumigat.
A Letter, 12. is wrapped up,
writ upon, 13.
and sealed, 14.
Epistola, 12. complicatur,
inscribitur, 13.
& obsignatur, 14.
Going abroad by night,
he maketh use of a Lanthorn, 15.
or a Torch, 16.
Prodiens noctu
utitur Lanterna, 15.
vel Face, 16.


Arts belonging to Speech.

Artes Sermones.

Chapter 100

Grammar, 1.
122 is conversant about Letters, 2.
of which it maketh
Words, 3.
and teacheth how
to utter, write, 4.
put together and part
them rightly.
Grammatica, 1.
versatur circa Literas, 2.
ex quibus componit
Voces, verba, 3.
eloqui, scribere, 4.
construere, distinguere
(interpungere) eas recte.
Rhetorick, 5.
doth as it were paint, 6.
a rude form, 7.
of Speech
with Oratory Flourishes, 8.
such as are Figures,
Hierogylphicks, &c.
Rhetorica, 5.
pingit, 6.
quasi rudem formam, 7.
Oratoriis Pigmentis, 8.
ut sunt Figuræ,
Adagia (proverbia)
Sententiæ (Gnomæ)
Hieroglyphica, &c.
Poetry, 9.
gathereth these Flowers
of Speech
, 10.
and tieth them as it were
into a little Garland, 11.
and so making of Prose
a Poem,
it maketh several sorts
of Verses and Odes,
and is therefore crowned
with a Laurel, 12.
Poesis, 9.
colligit hos Flores
, 10.
& colligat quasi
in Corallam, 11.
atque ita, faciens è prosa
ligatam orationem,
componit varia
Carmina & Hymnos (Odas)
ac propterea coronatur
Lauru, 12.
Musick, 13.
setteth Tunes, 14.
with pricks,
to which it setteth words,
and so singeth alone,
or in Consort,
or by Voice,
or Musical Instruments, 15.
Musica, 13.
componit Melodias, 14.
quibus aptat verba,
atque ita cantat sola
vel Concentu (Symphonia),
aut voce
aut Instrumentis Musicis, 15.


Musical Instruments.

Instrumenta musica.

Chapter 101

Musical Instruments are
those which make a sound:
Musica instrumenta sunt
quæ edunt vocem:
when they are beaten upon,
as a Cymbal, 1. with a Pestil,
a little Bell, 2.
with an Iron pellet within;
or Rattle, 3.
by tossing it about:
a Jews-Trump, 4.
being put to the mouth,
with the fingers;
a Drum, 5.
and a Kettle, 6.
with a Drum-stick, 7.
as also the Dulcimer, 8.
with the Shepherds-harp, 9.
and the Tymbrel, 10.
cum pulsantur,
ut Cymbalum, 1. Pistillo,
Tintinnabulum, 2.
intus Globulo ferreo,
Crepitaculum, 3.
Crembalum, 4.
ori admotum,
Tympanum, 5.
& Ahenum, 6.
Claviculâ, 7.
ut & Sambuca, 8.
cum Organo pastoritio, 9.
& Sistrum (Crotalum), 10.
upon which strings
are stretched, and struck upon,
as the Psaltery, 11.
124 and the Virginals, 12.
with both hands;
the Lute, 13.
(in which is the Neck, 14.
the Belly, 15,
the Pegs, 16.
by which the Strings, 17.
are stretched
upon the Bridge, 18.)
the Cittern, 19.
with the right hand only,
the Vial, 20.
with a Bow, 21.
and the Harp, 23.
with a Wheel within,
which is turned about:
the Stops, 22.
in every one are touched
with the left hand.
in quibus Chordæ
intenduntur & plectuntur
ut Nablium, 11.
cum Clavircordio, 12.
utrâque manu;
Testudo (Chelys), 13.
(in quâ Jugum, 14.
Magadium, 15.
& Verticilli, 16.
quibus Nervi, 17.
super Ponticulam, 18.)
& Cythara, 19.
Dexterâ tantum,
Pandura, 20.
Plectro, 21.
& Lyra, 23.
intus rotâ,
quæ versatur:
Dimensiones, 22.
in singulis tanguntur
At last,
those which are blown,
as with the mouth,
the Flute, 24.
the Shawm, 25.
the Bag-pipe, 26.
the Cornet, 27.
the Trumpet, 28, 29.
or with Bellows,
as a pair of Organs, 30.
quæ inflantur,
ut Ore,
Fistula (Tibia), 24.
Gingras, 25.
Tibia utricularis, 26.
Lituus, 27.
Tuba, 28. Buccina, 29.
vel Follibus,
ut Organum pneumaticum, 30.




Chapter 102

The Naturalist, 1.
vieweth all the works of God
in the World.
Physicus, 1.
speculatur omnia Dei Opera
in Mundo.
The Supernaturalist, 2.
searches out the Causes
and Effects of things.
Metaphysicus, 2.
perscrutatur Causas,
& rerum Effecta.
The Arithmetician,
reckoneth numbers,
by adding, subtracting,
multiplying and dividing;
and that either by Cyphers, 3.
on a Slate,
or by Counters, 4.
upon a Desk.
computat numeros,
addendo, subtrahendo,
multiplicando, dividendo;
idque vel Cyphris, 3.
in Palimocesto,
vel Calculis, 4.
super Abacum.
Country people reckon, 5.
with figures of tens, X.
and figures of five, V.
by twelves, fifteens,
and threescores.
Rustici numerant, 5.
X. & Quincuncibus,
V. per Duodenas, Quindenas,
& Sexagenas.




Chapter 103

A Geometrician
measureth the height
of a Tower, 1....2.
or the distance
of places, 3....4.
either with a Quadrant, 5.
or a Jacob’s-staff, 6.
metitur Altitudinem
Turris, 1....2.
aut distantiam
Locorum, 3....4.
sive Quadrante, 5.
sive Radio, 6.
He maketh out
the Figures of things,
with Lines, 7.
Angles, 8.
and Circles, 9.
by a Rule, 10.
a Square, 11.
and a pair of Compasses, 12.
Figuras rerum
Lineis, 7,
Angulis, 8.
& Circulis, 9.
ad Regulam, 10.
Normam, 11.
& Circinum, 12.
Out of these arise
an Oval, 13.
a Triangle, 14.
a Quadrangle, 15.
and other figures.
Ex his oriuntur
Cylindrus, 13.
Trigonus 14.
Tetragonus, 15.
& aliæ figuræ.


The Celestial Sphere.

Sphera cælestis.

Chapter 104

Astronomy considereth
the motion of the Stars,
the Effects of them.
Astronomia considerat
motus Astrorum,
eorum Effectus.
The Globe of Heaven
is turned about upon
an Axle-tree, 1.
about the Globe
of the Earth
, 2.
in the space of XXIV. hours.
Globus Cæli
volvitur super
Axem, 1.
circa globum
, 2.
spacio XXIV. horarum.
The Pole-stars, or Pole,
the Arctick, 3.
the Antarctick, 4.
conclude the Axle-tree
at both ends.
Stellæ polares,
Arcticus, 3.
Antarcticus, 4.
finiunt Axem
The Heaven is
full of Stars every where.
Cælum est
Stellatum undique.
There are reckoned
above a thousand fixed Stars;
but of Constellations
towards the North, XXI.
towards the South, XVI.
Stellarum fixarum
numerantur plus mille;
Siderum verò
Septentrionarium, XXI.
Meridionalium, XVI.
128 Add to these the XII.
signs of the Zodiaque, 5.
every one XXX. degrees,
whose names are
Gemini, ♋ Cancer,
Leo, ♍ Virgo,
Libra, ♏ Scorpius,
Sagittarius, ♑ Capricorn,
Aquarius, ♓ Pisces.
Adde Signa, XII.
Zodiaci, 5.
quodlibet graduum, XXX,
quorum nomina sunt
Gemini, ♋ Cancer,
Leo, ♍ Virgo,
Libra, ♏ Scorpius,
Sagittarius, ♑ Capricorn,
Aquarius, ♓ Pisces.
Under this move
the seven Wandring-stars
which they call Planets,
whose way is a circle
in the middle of the Zodiack,
called the Ecliptick, 6.
Sub hoc cursitant
Stellæ errantes VII.
quas vocant Planetas,
quorum via est Circulvs,
in medio Zodiaci,
dictus Ecliptica, 6.
Other Circles are
the Horizon, 7.
the Meridian, 8.
the Æquator, 9.
the two Colures,
the one of the Equinocts, 10.
(of the Spring
when theentreth into;
when it entreth in)
the other of the Solstices, 11.
(of the Summer,
when theentreth into
of the Winter
when it entreth into)
the Tropicks,
the Tropick of Cancer, 12.
the Tropick of Capricorn, 13.
and the two
Polar Circles, 14....15.
Alii Circuli sunt
Horizon, 7.
Meridianus, 8.
Equator, 9.
duo Coluri,
alter Æquinoxiorum, 10.
quando ingreditur)
alter Solsticiorum, 11.
quando ingreditur)
duo Tropici,
Tr. Cancri, 12.
Tr. Capricorni, 13.
& duo
Polares, 14....15.


The Aspects of the Planets.

Planetarum Aspectus.

Chapter 104b

The Moon
runneth through the Zodiack
every Month.
percurrit Zodiacum
singulis Mensibus.
The Sun, ☉ in a Year. Sol, ☉ Anno.
Mercury, ☿
and Venus, ♀
about the Sun,
the one in a hundred and fifteen,
the other in 585 days.
Mercurius, ☿
& Venus, ♀
circa Solem,
illa CXV.,
hæc DLXXXV. Diebus.
Mars, ♂ in two years; Mars, ♂ Biennio;
Jupiter, ♃
in almost twelve;
Jupiter, ♃
ferè duodecim;
Saturn, ♄
in thirty years.
Saturnus, ♄
triginta annis.
Hereupon they meet
variously among themselves,
and have mutual Aspects
one towards another.
Hinc conveniunt
variè inter se
& se mutuo adspiciunt.
130 As here theandare
in Conjunction.
and Moon
in Opposition,
andin a Trine Aspect,
andin a Quartile,
andin a Sextile.
Ut hic sunt,&
in Conjunctione,
and Luna
in Oppositione,
&in Trigono,
&in Quadratura,
&in Sextili.


The Apparitions of the Moon.

Phases Lunæ.

Chapter 105

The Moon shineth
not by her own Light
but that which is borrowed
of the Sun.
Luna, lucet
non sua propria Luce,
sed mutuatâ
a Sole.
For the one half of it
is always enlightned,
the other remaineth darkish.
Nam altera ejus medietas
semper illuminatur,
altera manet caliginosa.
Hereupon we see it in
Conjunction with the Sun, 1.
to be obscure,
almost none at all;
in Opposition, 5.
131 whole and clear,
(and we call it
the Full Moon;)
sometimes in the half,
(and we call it the Prime, 3.
and last Quarter, 7.)
Hinc videmus, in
Conjunctione Solis, 1.
obscuram, imo nullam:
in Oppositione, 5.
totam & lucidam,
(& vocamus
alias dimidiam,
(& dicimus Primam, 3.
& ultimam Quadram, 7.)
Otherwise it waxeth, 2....4.
or waneth, 6....8.
and is said to be horned,
or more than half round.
Cæteroqui crescit, 2....4.
aut decrescit, 6....8.
& vocatur falcata,
vel gibbosa.


The Eclipses.


Chapter 106

The Sun
is the fountain of light,
inlightning all things,
but the Earth, 1.
and the Moon, 2.
being shady bodies,
are not pierced with its rays,
for they cast a shadow
upon the place
just over against them.
est fons Lucis,
illuminans omnia;
sed Terra, 1.
& Luna, 2.
Corpora opaca,
non penetrantur ejus radiis,
nam jaciunt umbram
in locum oppositum.
when the Moon lighteth
132 into the shadow
of the Earth, 2.
it is darkened,
which we call an Eclipse,
or defect.
cum Luna incidit
in umbram
Terræ, 2.
quod vocamus Eclipsin
(deliquium) Lunæ.
But when the Moon
runneth betwixt the Sun
and the Earth, 3.
it covereth it with
its shadow;
and this we call
the Eclipse of the Sun,
because it taketh from us
the sight of the Sun,
and its light;
neither doth the Sun
for all that suffer any thing,
but the Earth.
Cum vero Luna
currit inter Solem
& Terram, 3.
obtegit illum
umbrâ suâ;
& hoc vocamus
Eclipsin Solis,
quia adimit nobis
prospectum Solis,
& lucem ejus;
nec tamen Sol
patitur aliquid,
sed Terra.


The terrestial Sphere.

Sphera terrestris.

Chapter 107a

The Earth is round, and
therefore to be represented
by two Hemispheres, a..b.
Terra est rotunda,
fingenda igitur
duobus Hemispheriis, a..b.
The Circuit of it
133 is 360 degrees
(whereof every one maketh
60 English Miles
or 21600 Miles,)
and yet it is but a prick,
compared with the World,
whereof it is the Centre.
Ambitus ejus
est graduum CCCLX.
(quorum quisque facit
LX. Milliaria Anglica
vel 21600 Milliarium)
& tamen est punctum,
collata cum orbe,
cujus Centrum est.
They measure Longitude
of it by Climates, 1.
and the Latitude
by Parallels, 2.
Longitudinem ejus
dimetiuntur Climatibus, 1.
lineis Parallelis, 2.
The Ocean, 3.
compasseth it about,
and five Seas wash it,
the Mediterranean Sea, 4.
the Baltick Sea, 5. the Red Sea, 6.
the Persian Sea, 7.
and the Caspian Sea, 8.
Oceanus, 3.
ambit eam
& Maria V. perfundunt
Mediterraneum, 4.
Balticum, 5. Erythræum, 6.
Persicum, 7.
Caspium, 8.


The terrestial Sphere.

Sphera terrestris.

Chapter 107b

It is divided into V. Zones,
whereof the II. frigid ones,
134 are uninhabitable;
the II. Temperate ones, 10....10.
and the Torrid one, 11.
Distribuitur in Zonas V.,
quarum duæ frigidæ,
sunt inhabitabiles;
duæ Temperatæ, 10....10.
& Torrida, 11.
Besides it is divided
into three Continents;
this of ours, 12. which
is subdivided into Europe, 13.
Asia, 14. Africa, 15.
America, 16....16.
(whose Inhabitants are
Antipodes to us;)
and the South Land, 17....17.
yet unknown.
Ceterum divisa est
in tres Continentes;
nostram, 12. quæ
subdividitur in Europam, 13.
Asiam, 14. & Africam, 15.
in Americam, 16....16.
(cujus incolæ sunt
Antipodes nobis;)
& in Terram Australem, 17....17.
adhuc incognitam.
They that dwell
under the North pole, 18.
have the days and nights
6 months long.
sub Arcto, 18.
habent Dies Noctes
Infinite Islands
float in the Seas.
Infinitæ Insulæ
natant in maribus.




Chapter 108

The chief Kingdoms
of Europe, are
135 Spain, 1.
France, 2.
Italy, 3.
England, 4.
Scotland, 5.
Ireland, 6.
Germany, 7.
Bohemia, 8.
Hungary, 9.
Croatia, 10.
Dacia, 11.
Sclavonia, 12.
Greece, 13.
Thrace, 14.
Podolia, 15.
Tartary, 16.
Lituania, 17.
Poland, 18.
The Netherlands, 19.
Denmark, 20.
Norway, 21.
Swethland, 22.
Lapland, 23.
Finland, 24.
Lisland, 25.
Prussia, 26.
Muscovy, 27.
and Russia, 28.
In Europâ nostrâ
sunt Regna primaria,
Hispania, 1.
Gallia, 2.
Italia, 3.
Anglia (Britania), 4.
Scotia, 5.
Hibernia, 6.
Germania, 7.
Bohemia, 8.
Hungaria, 9.
Croatia, 10.
Dacia, 11.
Sclavonia, 12.
Græcia, 13.
Thracia, 14.
Podolia, 15.
Tartaria, 16.
Lituania, 17.
Polonia, 18.
Belgium, 19.
Dania, 20.
Norvegia, 21.
Suecia, 22.
Lappia, 23.
Finnia, 24.
Livonia, 25.
Borussia, 26.
Muscovia, 27.
Russia, 28.


Moral Philosophy.


Chapter 109

This Life is a way,
or a place divided into two ways,
Pythagoras’s Letter Y.
broad, 1.
on the left hand track;
narrow, 2. on the right;
that belongs to Vice, 3.
this to Vertue, 4.
Vita hæc est via,
sive Bivium,
Litteræ Pithagoricæ Y.
latum, 1.
sinistro tramite
angustum, 2. dextro;
ille Vitii, 3.
est his Virtutis, 4.
Mind, Young Man, 5.
imitate Hercules:
leave the left hand way,
turn from Vice;
the Entrance, 6. is fair,
but the End, 7.
is ugly and steep down.
Adverte juvenis, 5.
imitare Herculem;
linque sinistram,
aversare Vitium;
Aditus speciosus, 6.
sed Exitus, 7.
turpis & præceps.
Go on the right hand,
though it be thorny, 8.
no way is unpassible
to vertue; follow whither
vertue leadeth
137 through narrow places
to stately palaces,
to the Tower of honour, 9.
Dextera ingredere,
utut spinosa, 8.
nulla via invia
virtuti; sequere quâ
viâ ducit virtus
per angusta,
ad augusta,
ad Arcem honoris, 9.
Keep the middle
and streight path,
and thou shalt go very safe.
Tene medium
& rectum tramitem;
ibis tutissimus.
Take heed thou do not go
too much on the right hand, 10.
Cave excedas
ad dextram, 10.
Bridle in, 12.
the wild Horse, 11. of Affection,
lest thou fall down headlong.
Compesce freno, 12.
equum ferocem, 11. Affectûs
ne præceps fias.
See thou dost not
go amiss on the left hand, 13.
in an ass-like sluggishness, 14.
but go onwards constantly,
persevere to the end,
and thou shalt be crown’d, 15.
deficias ad sinistram, 13.
segnitie asininâ, 14.
sed progredere constanter
pertende ad finem,
& coronaberis, 15.




Chapter 110

Prudence, 1.
looketh upon all things
138 as a Serpent, 2.
and doeth, speaketh, or
thinketh nothing in vain.
Prudentia, 1.
circumspectat omnia
ut Serpens, 2.
agitque, loquitur, aut
cogitat nihil incassum.
She looks backwards, 3.
as into a Looking-glass, 4.
to things past;
and seeth before her, 5.
as with a Perspective-glass, 7.
things to come,
or the End, 6.
and so she perceiveth
what she hath done, and
what remaineth to be done.
Respicit, 3.
tanquam in Speculum, 4.
ad præterita;
& prospicit, 5.
tanquam Telescopio, 7.
seu Finem, 6.
atque ita perspicit
quid egerit, &
quid restet agendum.
She proposeth
an Honest, Profitable
and withal, if it may be done,
a Pleasant End,
to her Actions.*
Actionibus suis*
præfigit Scopum,
Honestum, Utilem,
simulque, si fieri potest,
Having foreseen the End,
she looketh out Means,
as a Way, 8.
which leadeth to the End;
but such as are certain
and easie, and fewer
rather than more,
lest anything should hinder.
Fine prospecto,
dispicit Media,
ceu Viam, 8.
quæ ducit ad finem,
sed certa
& facilia; pauciora
potiùs quàm plura,
ne quid impediat.
She watcheth Opportunity, 9.
(which having
a bushy fore-head, 10.
and being bald-pated, 11.
and moreover
having wings, 12.
doth quickly slip away,)
and catcheth it.
Attendit Occasioni, 9.
Fronte Capillata, 10.
sed vertice calva, 11.
alata, 12.
facile elabitur)
eamque captat.
She goeth on her way
for fear she should stumble
or go amiss.
In viâ pergit
cautè (providè)
ne impingat
aut aberret.




Chapter 111

Diligence, 1. loveth labours,
avoideth Sloth,
is always at work,
like the Pismire, 2.
and carrieth together,
as she doth, for herself,
Store of all things, 3.
Sedulitas, 1. amat labores,
fugit Ignaviam,
semper est in opere,
ut Formica, 2.
& comportat,
ut illa, sibi,
omnium rerum Copiam, 3.
She doth not always
sleep, or make holidays,
as the Sluggard, 4.
and the Grashopper, 5. do,
whom Want, 6.
at the last overtaketh.
Non semper
dormit, ferias agit,
aut ut Ignavus, 4.
& Cicada, 5.
quos Inopia, 6.
tandem premit.
She pursueth what things
she hath undertaken
even to the end;
she putteth nothing off
till the morrow,
nor doth she sing
the Crow’s song, 7.
which saith over and over,
140 Cras, Cras.
Urget incepta
ad finem usque;
procrastinat nihil,
nec cantat
cantilenam Corvi, 7.
qui ingeminat
Cras, Cras.
After labours
, and ended,
being even wearied,
she resteth her self;
but being refreshed with Rest,
that she may not use her self
to Idleness, she falleth again
to her Business,
Post labores
& lassata,
sed recreata Quiete,
ne adsuescat
Otio, redit
ad Negotia.
A diligent Scholar
is like Bees, 8.
which carry honey
from divers Flowers, 9.
into their Hive, 10.
Diligens Discipulus,
similis est Apibus, 8.
qui congerunt mel
ex variis Floribus, 9.
in Alveare suum, 10.




Chapter 112

Temperance, 1.
prescribeth a mean
to meat and drink, 2.
and restraineth the desire,
as with a Bridle, 3.
141 and so moderateth all things,
lest any thing
too much be done.
Temperantia, 1.
præscribit modum
Cibo & Potui, 2.
& continet cupidinem,
ceu Freno, 3.
& sic moderatur omnia
ne quid
nimis fiat.
are made drunk, 4.
they stumble, 5.
they spue, 6.
and babble, 7.*
Heluones (ganeones)
inebriantur, 4.
titubant, 5.
ructant (vomunt), 6.
& rixantur, 7.
From Drunkenness
proceedeth Lasciviousness;
from this a lewd Life
amongst Whoremasters, 8.
and Whores, 9.
in kissing,
and dancing, 10.
E Crapula
oritur Lascivia;
ex hâc Vita libidinosa
inter Fornicatores, 8.
& Scorta, 9.
osculando (basiando),
& tripudiando, 10.




Chapter 113

Fortitude, 1.
is undaunted in adversity,
142 and bold as a Lion, 2. but
not haughty in Prosperity,
leaning on her own Pillar, 3.
Constancy, and
being the same in all things,
ready to undergo both
estates with an even mind.
Fortitudo, 1.
impavida est in adversis,
& confidens ut Leo, 2. at
non tumida in Secundis,
innixa suo Columini, 3.
Constantiæ; &
eadem in omnibus,
parata ad ferendam utramque
fortunam æquo animo.
She receiveth the strokes
of Misfortune
with the Shield, 4.
of Sufferance: and
keepeth off the Passions,
the enemies of quietness
with the Sword, 5.
of Valour.
Excipit ictus
Clypeo, 4.
Tolerantiæ: &
propellit Affectus,
hostes Euthymiæ
gladio, 5.




Chapter 114

Patience, 1.
endureth Calamities, 2.
143 and Wrongs, 3. meekly
like a Lamb, 4.
as the Fatherly
chastisement of God, 5.
Patientia, 1.
tolerat Calamitates, 2.
& Injurias, 3. humiliter
ut Agnus, 4.
tanquam paternam
ferulam Dei, 5.
In the meanwhile she leaneth
upon the Anchor of Hope, 6.
(as a Ship, 7.
tossed by waves in the Sea)
she prayeth to God, 8.
and expecteth the Sun, 10.
after cloudy weather, 9.
suffering evils,
and hoping better things.
Interim innititur
Spei Anchoræ, 6.
(ut Navis, 7.
fluctuans mari)
Deo supplicat, 8.
& expectat Phœbum, 10.
post Nubila, 9.
ferens mala,
sperans meliora.
On the contrary,
the impatient person, 11.
waileth, lamenteth,
rageth against himself, 12.
grumbleth like a Dog, 13.
and yet doth no good;
at the last he despaireth,
and becometh
his own Murtherer, 14.
Impatiens, 11.
plorat, lamentatur,
debacchatur, 12. in seipsum,
obmurmurat ut Canis, 13.
& tamen nil proficit;
tandem desperat,
& fit
Autochir, 14.
Being full of rage he desireth
to revenge wrongs.
Furibundus cupit
vindicare injurias.




Chapter 115

Men are made
for one another’s good;
therefore let them be kind.
Homines facti sunt
ad mutua commoda;
ergò sint humani.
Be thou sweet and lovely
in thy Countenance, 1.
gentle and civil
in thy Behaviour and Manners, 2.
affable and true spoken
with thy Mouth, 3.
affectionate and candid
in thy Heart, 4.
Sis suavis & amabilis
Vultu, 1.
comis & urbanus
Gestu ac Moribus, 2.
affabilis & verax,
Ore, 3.
candens & candidus
Corde, 4.
So love,
and so shalt thou be loved;
and there will be
a mutual Friendship, 5.
as that of Turtle-doves, 6.
hearty, gentle,
and wishing well on both parts.
Sic ama,
sic amaberis;
& fiat
mutua Amicitia, 5.
ceu Turturum, 6.
concors, mansueta,
& benevola utrinque.
Froward Men are
hateful, teasty, unpleasant.
145 contentious, angry, 7.
cruel, 8.
and implacable,
(rather Wolves and Lions,
than Men)
and such as fall out
among themselves,
they fight in a Duel, 9.
Morosi homines, sunt
odiosi, torvi, illepidi.
contentiosi, iracundi, 7.
crudeles, 8.
ac implacabiles,
(magis Lupi & Leones,
quàm homines)
& inter se
confligunt Duelle, 9.
Envy, 10.
wishing ill to others,
pineth away her self.
Invidia, 10.
malè cupiendo aliis,
conficit seipsam.




Chapter 116

Justice, 1.
is painted, sitting
on a square stone, 2. for
she ought to be immoveable;
with hood-winked eyes, 3.
that she may not respect
stopping the left ear, 4.
146 to be reserved
for the other party;
Justitia, 1.
pingitur, sedens
in lapide quadrato, 2. nam
decet esse immobilis;
obvelatis oculis, 3.
ad non respiciendum
claudens aurem sinistram, 4.
alteri parti;
Holding in her right Hand
a Sword, 5.
and a Bridle, 6.
to punish
and restrain evil men;
Tenens dextrâ
Gladium, 5.
& Frænum, 6.
ad puniendum
& coërcendum malos;
a pair of Balances, 7.
in the right Scale, 8. whereof
and in the left, 9.
Rewards being put,
are made even one with another,
and so good Men
are incited to virtue,
as it were with Spurs, 10.
Stateram, 7.
cujus dextræ Lanci, 8.
Sinistræ, 9.
Præmia imposita,
sibi invicem exequantur,
atque ita boni
incitantur ad virtutem,
ceu Calcaribus, 10.
In Bargains, 11.
let Men deal candidly,
let them stand to their
Covenants and Promises;
let that which is given one to keep,
and that which is lent,
be restored:
let no man be pillaged, 12.
or hurt, 13.
let every one have his own:
these are the precepts
of Justice.
In Contractibus, 11.
candidè agatur:
Pactis & Promissis;
& Mutuum,
nemo expiletur, 12.
aut lædatur, 13.
suum cuique tribuatur:
hæc sunt præcepta
Such things as these
are forbidden
in God’s 5th. and 7th.
and deservedly punish’d
on the Gallows and the Wheel, 14.
quinto & septimo Dei
& merito puniuntur
Cruce ac Rotâ, 14.




Chapter 117

Liberality, 1.
keepeth a mean about Riches,
which she honestly seeketh,
that she may have
somewhat to bestow
on them that want, 2.
Liberalitas, 1.
servat modum circa Divitias,
quas honestè quærit
ut habeat
quod largiatur
Egenis, 2.
She cloatheth, 3.
nourisheth, 4.
and enricheth, 5. these
with a chearful countenance, 6.
and a winged hand, 7.
Hos vestit, 3.
nutrit, 4.
ditat, 5.
Vultu hilari, 6.
& Manu alatâ, 7.
She submitteth her
wealth, 8. to her self,
not her self to it,
as the covetous man, 9. doth,
who hath,
that he may have,
and is not the Owner,
but the Keeper of his goods,
and being unsatiable,
always scrapeth together, 10.
with his Nails.
opes, 8. sibi,
non se illis,
ut Avarus, 9.
qui habet,
ut habeat,
& non est Possessor
sed Custos bonorum suorum,
& insatiabilis,
semper corradit, 10.
Unguibus suis.
148 Moreover he spareth
and keepeth,
hoarding up, 11.
that he may always have.
Sed & parcit
& adservat,
occludendo, 11.
ut semper habeat.
But the Prodigal, 12.
badly spendeth
things well gotten,
and at the last wanteth.
At Prodigus, 12.
malè disperdit
benè parta,
ac tandem eget.


Society betwixt Man and Wife.

Societas Conjugalis.

Chapter 118

was appointed by God
in Paradise,
for mutual help,
and the Propagation
of mankind.
institutum est à Deo
in Paradiso,
ad mutuum adjutorium,
& propagationem
generis humani.
A young man (a single man)
being to be married,
should be furnished
either with Wealth,
or a Trade and Science,
149 which may serve
for getting a living;
that he may be able
to maintain a Family.
Vir Juvenis (Cœlebs)
conjugium initurus,
instructus sit
aut Opibus,
aut Arte & Scientiâ,
quæ sit
de pane lucrando;
ut possit
sustentare Familiam.
Then he chooseth himself
a Maid that is Marriageable,
(or a Widow)
whom he loveth;
nevertheless a greater Regard
is to be had of Virtue,
and Honesty,
than of Beauty or Portion.
Deinde eligit sibi
Virginem Nubilem,
(aut Viduam)
quam adamat;
ubi tamen major ratio
habenda Virtutis
& Honestatis,
quàm Formæ aut Dotis.
Afterwards, he doth not
betroth her to himself closely,
but entreateth for her
as a Woer,
first to the Father, 1.
and then the Mother, 2.
or the Guardians,
or Kinsfolks, by
such as help to make the match, 3.
Posthæc, non
clam despondet sibi eam,
sed ambit,
ut Procus,
apud Patrem, 1.
& Matrem, 2.
vel apud Tutores,
& Cognatos, per
Pronubos, 3.
When she is espous’d to him,
he becometh the Bridegroom, 4.
and she the Bride, 5.
and the Contract is made
and an Instrument of Dowry 6.
is written.
Eâ sibi desponsâ,
fit Sponsus, 4.
& ipsa Sponsa, 5.
fiuntque Sponsalia,
& scribitur
Instrumentum Dotale, 6.
At the last
the Wedding is made,
where they are joined together
by the Priest, 7.
giving their Hands, 8.
one to another
and Wedding-rings, 9.
then they feast with
the witnesses that are invited.
fiunt Nuptiæ
ubi copulantur
à Sacerdote, 7.
datis Manibus, 8.
ultrò citroque,
& Annulis Nuptialibus, 9.
tum epulantur cum
invitatis testibus.
After this they are called
Husband and Wife;
when she is dead he becometh
a Widower.
Abhinc dicuntur
Maritus & Uxor;
hâc mortuâ ille fit


The Tree of Consanguinity

Arbor Consanguinitatis.

Chapter 119

In Consanguinity
there touch a Man, 1.
in Lineal Ascent,
the Father
(the Father-in-law), 2.
and the Mother
(the Mother-in-law), 3.
the Grandfather, 4.
and the Grandmother, 5.
the Great Grandfather, 6.
and the Great Grandmother, 7.
the great great
, 8.
the great great
, 9.
the great great
Grandfather’s Father
, 10.
the great great
Grandmother’s Mother
, 11.
151 the great great Grandfather’s
, 12.
the great great Grandmother’s
, 13.
Hominem, 1.
Consanguinitate attingunt,
in Linea ascendenti,
Pater (Vitricus), 2.
& Mater (Noverca), 3.
Avus, 4. & Avia, 5.
Proavus, 6. & Proavia, 7.
Abavus, 8.
& Abavia, 9.
Atavus, 10.
& Atavia, 11
Tritavus, 12.
& Tritavia, 13.
Those beyond these are called
Ancestors, 14....14.
Ulteriores dicuntur
Majores, 14....14.
In a Lineal descent,
the Son (the son-in-law), 15.
and the Daughter,
(the Daughter-in-law), 16.
the Nephew, 17.
and the Neece, 18.
the Nephews Son, 19.
and the Nephews Daughter, 20.
the Nephews Nephew, 21.
and the Neeces Neece, 22.
the Nephews Nephews
, 23.
the Neeces Neeces
, 24.
the Nephews Nephews
, 25.
the Neeces Neeces
, 26.
In Linea descendenti,
Filius (Privignus), 15.
& Filia (Privigna), 16.
Nepos, 17.
& Neptis, 18.
Pronepos, 19. & Proneptis, 26.
Abnepos, 21. & Abneptis, 22.
Atnepos, 23.
& Atneptis, 24.
Trinepos, 25.
& Trineptis, 26.
Those beyond these are called
Posterity, 27....27.
Ulteriores dicuntur
Posteri, 27....27.
In a Collateral Line
are the Uncle
by the Fathers side
, 28.
and the Aunt
by the Fathers side
, 29.
the Uncle
by the Mothers side
, 30.
and the Aunt
by the Mothers side
, 31.
the Brother, 32.
and the Sister, 33.
the Brothers Son, 34.
the Sisters Son, 35.
and the Cousin by
the Brother
and Sister, 36.
In Linea Collaterali
sunt Patruus, 28.
& Amita, 29.
Avunculus, 30.
& Matertera, 31.
Frater, 32. & Soror, 33.
Patruelis, 34.
Sobrinus, 35.
& Amitinus, 36.


The Society betwixt Parents and Children.

Societas Parentalis.

Chapter 120

Married Persons,
(by the blessing of God)
have Issue,
and become Parents.
(ex benedictione Dei)
suscipiunt Sobolem (Prolem)
& fiunt Parentes.
The Father, 1. begetteth
and the Mother, 2. beareth
Sons, 3. and Daughters, 4.
(sometimes Twins).
Pater, 1. generat
& Mater, 2. parit
Filios, 3. & Filias, 4.
(aliquando Gemellos).
The Infant, 5.
is wrapped in
Swadling-cloathes, 6.
is laid in a Cradle, 7.
is suckled by the Mother
with her Breasts, 8.
and fed with Pap, 9.
Afterwards it learneth
to go by a Standing-stool, 10.
153 playeth with Rattles, 11.
and beginneth to speak.
Infans, 5.
Fasciis, 6.
reponitur in Cunas, 7.
lactatur a matre
Uberibus, 8.
& nutritur Pappis, 9.
Deinde discit
incedere Seperasto, 10.
ludit Crepundiis, 11.
& incipit fari.
As it beginneth to grow older,
it is accustomed
to Piety, 12.
and Labour, 13.
and is chastised, 14.
if it be not dutiful.
Crescente ætate,
Pietati, 12.
& Labori, 13.
& castigatur, 14.
si non sit morigerus.
Children owe to Parents
Reverence and Service.
Liberi debent Parentibus
Cultum & Officium.
The Father maintaineth
his Children
by taking pains, 15.
Pater sustentat
laborando, 15.


The Society betwixt Masters and Servants.

Societas herilis.

Chapter 121

The Master
(the goodman of the House), 1.
hath Men-servants, 2.
(Pater familias), 1.
habet Famulos (Servos), 2.
154 the Mistress
(the good wife of the House), 3.
Maidens, 4.
(Mater familias), 3.
Ancillas, 4.
They appoint these
their Work, 6.
and divide
them their tasks, 5. which
are faithfully to be done by them
without murmuring
and loss:
for which
their Wages,
and Meat and Drink
is allowed them.
Illi mandant his
Opera, 6.
& distribuunt
Laborum Pensa, 5. quæ
ab his fideliter sunt exsequenda
sine murmure
& dispendio;
pro quo
& Alimonia
præbentur ipsis.
A Servant was heretofore
a Slave,
over whom the Master
had power of life and death.
Servus olim erat
in quem Domino
potestas fuit vitæ & necis
At this day the poorer sort
serve in a free manner,
being hired for Wages.
Hodiè pauperiores
serviunt liberè,
conducti mercede.


A City.


Chapter 122

Of many Houses
is made a Village, 1.
155 or a Town, or a City, 2.
Ex multis Domibus
fit Pagus, 1.
vel Oppidum, vel Urbs, 2.
That and this are fenced
and begirt with a Wall, 3.
a Trench, 4.
Bulwarks, 5.
and Pallisadoes, 6.
Istud & hæc muniuntur
& cinguntur Mœnibus (Muro), 3.
Vallo, 4.
Aggeribus, 5.
& Vallis, 6.
Within the Walls is
the void Place, 7.
without, the Ditch, 8.
Intra muros est
Pomœrium, 7.
extrà, Fossa, 8.
In the Walls are
Fortresses, 9.
and Towers, 10.
Watch-Towers, 11. are
upon the higher places.
In mœnibus sunt
Propugnacula, 9.
& Turres, 10.
Specula, 11. extant
in editioribus locis.
The entrance into a City
is made out of the Suburbs, 12.
through Gates, 13.
over the Bridge, 14.
Ingressus in Urbem
fit ex Suburbio, 12.
per Portam, 13.
super Pontem, 14.
The Gate
hath a Portcullis, 15.
a Draw-bridge, 16.
two-leaved Doors, 17.
Locks and Bolts,
as also Barrs, 18.
habet Cataractas, 15.
Pontem versatilem, 16.
Valvas, 17.
Claustra & Repagula,
ut & Vectes, 18.
In the Suburbs are
Gardens, 19.
and Garden-houses, 20.
and also Burying-places, 21.
In Suburbiis sunt
Horti, 19.
& Suburbana, 20.
ut & Cœmeteria, 21.


The inward parts of a City.

Interiora Urbis.

Chapter 123

Within the City are
Streets, 1.
paved with Stones;
Market-places, 2.
(in some places with
Galleries), 3.
and narrow Lanes, 4.
Intra urbem sunt
Plateæ (Vici), 1.
stratæ Lapidibus;
Fora, 2.
(alicubi cum
Porticibus), 3.
& Angiportus, 4.
The Publick Buildings
are in the middle of the City,
the Church, 5.
the School, 6.
the Guild-Hall, 7.
the Exchange, 8.
Publica ædificia
sunt in medio Urbis,
Templum, 5.
Schola, 6.
Curia, 7.
Domus Mercaturæ, 8.
About the Walls
and the Gates
are the Magazine, 9.
the Granary, 10.
Inns, Ale-houses,
Cooks-shops, 11.
157 the Play-house, 12.
and the Spittle, 13.
Circa Mœnia,
& Portas
Armamentarium, 9.
Granarium, 10.
Diversoria, Popinæ,
& Cauponæ, 11.
Theatrum, 12.
Nosodochium, 13.
In the by-places
are Houses of Office, 14.
and the Prison, 15.
In recessibus,
Foricæ (Cloacæ), 14.
& Custodia (Carcer), 15.
In the chief Steeple
is the Clock, 16. and
the Watchmans Dwelling, 17.
In turre primariâ
est Horologium, 16.
& habitatio Vigilum, 17.
In the Streets are Wells, 18. In Plateis sunt Putei, 18.
The River, 19. or Beck,
runneth about the City,
serveth to wash away
the filth.
Fluvius, 19. vel Rivus,
interfluens Urbem,
inservit eluendis
The Tower, 20.
standeth in the highest
part of the City.
Arx, 20.
extat in summo




Chapter 124

The best Law, is
a quiet agreement,
made either by themselves,
158 betwixt whom the sute is,
or by an Umpire.
Optimum Jus, est
placida conventio,
facta vel ab ipsis,
inter quos lis est
vel ab Arbitro.
If this do not proceed,
they come into Court, 1.
(heretofore they judg’d
in the Market-place;
at this day in the Moot-hall)
in which the Judge, 2.
sitteth with his Assessors, 3.
the Clerk, 4. taketh
their Votes in writing.
Hæc si non procedit,
venitur in Forum, 1.
(olim judicabant
in Foro,
hodiè in Prætorio)
cui Judex (Prætor), 2.
præsidet cum Assessoribus, 3.
Dicographus, 4. excipit
Vota calamo.
The Plaintiff, 5.
accuseth the Defendant, 6.
and produceth Witnesses, 7.
against him.
Actor, 5.
accusat Reum, 6.
& producit Testes, 7.
contra illum.
The Defendant excuseth
himself by a Counsellor, 8.
whom the Plaintiff’s Counsellor, 9.
Reus excusat
se per Advocatum, 8.
cui Actoris Procurator, 9.
Then the Judge
pronounceth Sentence,
acquitting the innocent,
and condemning
him that is guilty,
to a Punishment,
or a Fine,
or Torment.
Tum Judex
Sententiam pronunciat,
absolvens insontem,
& damnans
ad Pœnam,
vel Mulctam,
vel ad Supplicium.


The Tormenting of Malefactors.

Supplicia Malefactorum.

Chapter 125

Malefactors, 1.
are brought
from the Prison, 3.
(where they are wont
to be tortured)
by Serjeants, 2.
or dragg’d with a Horse, 15.
to place of Execution.
Malefici, 1.
è Carcere, 3.
(ubi torqueri solent)
per Lictores, 2.
vel Equo raptantur, 15.
ad locum Supplicii.
Thieves, 4.
are hanged by the Hangman, 6.
on a Gallows, 5.
Fures, 4.
suspenduntur a Carnifice, 6.
in Patibulo, 5.
are beheaded, 7.
decollantur, 7.
and Robbers
are either laid upon a Wheel, 8.
having their Legs broken,
or fastened upon a Stake, 9.
Homicidæ (Sicarii)
ac Latrones (Piratæ)
vel imponuntur Rotæ
crucifragio plexi, 8.
vel Palo infiguntur, 9.
160 are burnt in
a great Fire, 10.
Striges (Lamiæ)
cremantur super
Rogum, 10.
Some before
they are executed
have their Tongues cut out, 11.
or have their Hand, 12.
cut off upon a Block, 13.
or are burnt with Pincers, 14.
Quidam antequam
supplicio afficiantur
elinguantur, 11.
aut plectuntur Manu, 12.
super Cippum, 13.
aut Forcipibus, 14. uruntur
They that have their Life
given them,
are set on the Pillory, 16.
or strapado’d, 17.
are set upon
a wooden Horse, 18.
have their Ears cut off, 19.
are whipped with Rods, 20.
are branded,
are banished,
are condemned
to the Gallies, or to
perpetual Imprisonment.
Vitâ donati,
constringuntur Numellis, 16.
luxantur, 17.
Equuleo, 18.
truncantur Auribus, 19.
cæduntur Virgis, 20.
Stigmate notantur,
ad Triremes, vel ad
Carcerem perpetuum.
Traytors are pull’d in pieces
with four Horses.
Perduelles discerpuntur




Chapter 126

brought from other places
are either exchanged
in an Exchange, 1.
or exposed to sale
in Warehouses, 2.
and they are sold
for Money, 3.
being either measured
with an Eln, 4.
or weighed
in a pair of Balances, 5.
aliunde allatæ,
aliunde vel commutantur
in Domo Commerciorum, 1,
vel exponuntur venum
in Tabernis Mercimoniorum, 2.
& venduntur
pro Pecuniâ (monetâ), 3.
vel mensuratæ
Ulnâ, 4.
vel ponderatæ
Librâ, 5.
Shop-keepers, 6.
Pedlars, 7.
and Brokers, 8.
would also be called
Merchants, 9.
Tabernarii. 6.
Circumforanei, 7.
& Scrutarii, 8.
etiam volunt dici
Mercatores, 9.
The Seller
braggeth of a thing
that is to be sold,
162 and setteth the rate of it,
and how much
it may be sold for.
rem promercalem,
& indicat pretium,
The Buyer, 10. cheapneth
and offereth the price.
Emptor, 10. licetur,
& pretium offert.
If any one
bid against him, 11.
the thing is delivered to him
that promiseth the most.
Si quis
contralicetur, 11.
ei res addicitur
qui pollicetur plurimum.


Measures and Weights.

Mensuræ & Pondera.

Chapter 127

We measure things that
hang together with an Eln, 1.
liquid things
with a Gallon, 2.
and dry things
by a two-bushel Measure, 3.
Res continuas
metimur Ulnâ, 1.
Congio, 2.
Medimno, 3.
We try the heaviness
of things by Weights, 4.
and Balances, 5.
Gravitatem rerum
experimur Ponderibus, 4.
& Librâ (bilance), 5.
In this is first
163 the Beam, 6.
in the midst whereof is
a little Axle-tree, 7. above
the cheeks and the hole, 8.
in which the Needle, 9.
moveth it self to and fro:
on both sides
are the Scales, 10.
hanging by little Cords, 11.
In hâc primò est
Jugum (Scapus), 6.
in cujus medio
Axiculus, 7. superiùs
trutina & agina, 8.
in quâ Examen, 9.
sese agitat:
sunt Lances, 10.
pendentes Funiculis, 11.
The Brasiers balance, 12.
weigheth things by hanging
them on a Hook, 13.
and the Weight, 14.
opposite to them which
in (a) weigheth just as much
as the thing,
in (b) twice so much
in (c) thrice so much, &c.
Statera, 12.
ponderat res, suspendendo
illas Unco, 13.
& Pondus, 14.
ex opposito, quod
in (a) æquiponderat
in (b) bis tantum,
in (c) ter, &c.



Ars Medica.

Chapter 128

The Patient, 1.
sendeth for a Physician, 2.
164 who feeleth his Pulse, 3,
and looketh upon his Water, 4.
and then prescribeth
a Receipt in a Bill, 5.
Ægrotans, 1.
accersit Medicum, 2.
qui tangit ipsius Arteriam, 3.
& inspicit Urinam, 4.
tum præscribit
Medicamentum in Schedula, 5.
That is made ready
by an Apothecary, 6.
in a Apothecaries Shop, 7.
where Drugs
are kept in Drawers, 8.
Boxes, 9.
and Gally-pots, 10.
Istud paratur
à Pharmacopæo, 6.
in Pharmacopolio, 7.
ubi Pharmaca
adservantur in Capsulis, 8.
Pyxidibus, 9.
& Lagenis, 10.
And it is
either a Potion, 11.
or Powder, 12.
or Pills, 13.
or Trochisks, 14.
or an Electuary, 15.
vel Potio, 11.
vel Pulvis, 12.
vel Pillulæ, 13.
vel Pastilli, 14.
vel Electuarium, 15.
Diet and Prayer, 16.
is the best Physick.
Diæta & Oratio, 16.
est optima Medicina.
The Chirurgeon, 18.
cureth Wounds, 17.
and Ulcers,
with Plasters, 19.
Chirurgus, 18.
curat Vulnera, 17.
& Ulcera,
Spleniis (emplastris), 19.


A Burial.


Chapter 129

Dead Folks
heretofore were burned,
and their Ashes
put into an Urn, 1.
olim cremabantur,
& Cineres
recondebantur in Urna, 1.
We enclose
our dead Folks
in a Coffin, 2.
lay them upon a Bier, 3.
and see they be carried out
in a Funeral Pomp
towards the Church-yard, 4.
where they are laid
in a Grave, 6.
by the Bearers, 5.
and are interred;
this is covered with
a Grave-stone, 7.
and is adorned
with Tombs, 8.
and Epitaphs, 9.
Nos includimus
nostros Demortuos
Loculo, (Capulo), 2.
imponimus Feretro, 3.
& curamus efferri
Pompâ Funebri
versus Cœmeterium, 4.
ubi inferuntur,
Sepulchro, 6,
a Vespillonibus, 5.
& humantur;
hoc tegitur
Cippo, 7.
& ornatur
Monumentis, 8.
ac Epitaphiis, 9.
166 As the Corps go along
Psalms are sung,
and the Bells are rung, 10.
Funere prodeunte,
Hymni cantantur,
& Campanæ, 10. pulsantur.


A Stage-play.

Ludus Scenicus.

Chapter 130

In a Play-house, 1.
(which is trimmed
with Hangings, 2. and
covered with Curtains, 3.)
Comedies and Tragedies
are acted,
wherein memorable things
are represented;
as here, the History
of the Prodigal Son, 4.
and his Father, 5.
by whom he is entertain’d,
being return’d home.
In Theatro, 1.
(quod vestitur
Tapetibus, 2. &
tegitur Sipariis, 3.)
Comediæ vel Tragœdiæ
quibus repræsentantur
res memorabiles
ut hic, Historia
de Filio Prodigo, 4.
& Patre, 5. ipsius,
à quo recipitur,
domum redux.
The Players
act being in disguise;
the Fool, 6. maketh Jests.
Actores (Histriones)
agunt personati;
Morio, 6. dat Jocos.
167 The chief of the Spectators
sit in the Gallery, 7.
the common sort stand
on the Ground, 8.
and clap the hands,
if anything please them.
Spectatorum primarii,
sedent in Orchestra, 7.
plebs stat
in Cavea, 8.
& plaudit,
si quid arridet.




Chapter 131

The Tumbler, 1.
maketh several Shows
by the nimbleness
of his body, walking to and fro
on his hands,
through a Hoop, 2. &c.
Præstigiator, 1.
facit varia Spectacula,
corporis, deambulando
per Circulum, 2. &c.
Sometimes also
he danceth, 4.
having on a Vizzard.
Interdum etiam
tripudiat, 4.
The Jugler, 3.
sheweth sleights,
out of a Purse.
Agyrta, 3.
facit præstigias
è Marsupio.
168 The Rope-dancer, 5.
goeth and danceth
upon a Rope,
holdeth a Poise, 6.
in his hand;
or hangeth himself
by the hand or foot, 7. &c.
Funambulus, 5.
graditur & saltat
super Funem,
tenens Halterem, 6.
aut suspendit se
manu vel pede, 7. &c.


The Fencing-School.


Chapter 132

meet in a Duel
in a Fencing-place,
fighting with Swords, 1.
or Pikes, 2.
and Halberds, 3.
or Short-swords, 4.
or Rapiers, 5.
having balls at the point
(lest they wound
one another mortally)
or with two edged-Swords
and a Dagger, 6. together.
congrediuntur Duello
in Palestra,
decertantes vel Gladiis, 1.
vel Hastilibus, 2.
& Bipennibus, 3.
vel Semispathis, 4.
vel Ensibus, 5.
mucronem obligatis,
(ne lædet
vel Frameis
& Pugione, 6. simul.
169 Wrestlers, 7.
(among the Romans
in time past were nayked
and anointed with Oyl)
take hold of one another
and strive whether
can throw the other,
by tripping up his heels, 8.
Luctatores, 7.
(apud Romanos
olim nudi
& inuncti Oleo)
prehendunt se invicem
& annituntur uter
alterum prosternere possit,
supplantando, 8.
Hood-winked Fencers, 9.
fought with their fists
in a ridiculous strife,
to wit, with their Eyes covered.
Andabatæ, 9.
pugnabant pugnis
ridiculo certamine,
nimirum Oculis obvelatis.



Ludus Pilæ.

Chapter 133

In a Tennis Court, 1.
they play with a Ball, 2.
which one throweth,
and another taketh,
and sendeth it back
with a Racket, 3.
170 and that is the Sport
of Noble Men
to stir their Body.
In Sphæristerio, 1.
luditur Pilâ, 2.
quam alter mittit,
alter excipit,
& remittit
Reticulo, 3.
idque est Lusus
ad commotionem Corporis.
A Wind-ball, 4.
being filled with Air,
by means of a Ventil,
is tossed to and fro
with the Fist, 5.
in the open Air.
Follis (pila magna), 4.
distenta Aere
ope Epistomii,
Pugno, 5.
sub Dio.



Ludus Aleæ.

Chapter 134

We play with Dice, 1.
either they that throw
the most take up all;
or we throw them
through a Casting-box, 2.
upon a Board, 3.
marked with figures,
and this is Dice-players game
at casting Lots.
Tesseris (talis), 1. ludimus
vel Plistobolindam;
vel immittimus illas
per Frittillum, 2.
in Tabellam, 3.
notatam numeris,
idque est Ludas Sortilegii
Men play by Luck and Skill
at Tables
in a pair of Tables, 4.
171 and at Cards, 5.
Sorte & Arte luditur
in Alveo aleatorio, 4.
& Chartis lusoriis, 5.
We play at Chesse
on a Chesse-board, 6. where
only art beareth the sway.
Ludimus Abaculis
in Abaco, 6. ubi
sola ars regnat.
The most ingenious Game
is the Game of Chesse, 7.
wherein as it were
two Armies
fight together in Battel.
Ingeniosissimus Ludus
est Ludus Latrunculorum, 7.
quo veluti
duo Exercitus
confligunt Prælio.



Cursus Certamina.

Chapter 135

Boys exercise themselves
by running,
either upon the Ice, 1.
in Scrick-shoes, 2.
where they are carried also
upon Sleds, 3.
or in the open Field,
making a Line, 4.
which he that desireth to win,
ought to touch,
but not to run beyond it.
Pueri exercent se
sive super Glaciem, 1.
Diabatris, 2.
ubi etiam vehuntur
Trahis, 3.
sive in Campo,
designantes Lineam, 4.
quam qui vincere cupit
debet attingere,
at non ultrâ procurrere.
Heretofore Runners, 5.
run betwixt Rails, 6.
172 to the Goal, 7. and
he that toucheth it first
receiveth the Prize, 8.
from him that gave the prize, 9.
Olim decurrebant Cursores, 5.
inter Cancellos, 6.
ad Metam, 7. &
qui primum contingebat eam,
accipiebat Brabeum,
(præmium), 8. à Brabeuta, 9.
At this day Tilting
(or the quintain) is used,
(where a Hoop, 11.
is struck at
with a Truncheon, 10.)
instead of Horse-races, which
are grown out of use.
Hodie Hastiludia
(ubi Circulus, 11.
Lancea, 10.)
loco Equiriorum, quæ
abierunt in desuetudinem.


Boys Sport.

Ludi Pueriles.

Chapter 136

Boys use to play
either with Bowling-stones 1.
or throwing a Bowl, 2.
at Nine-pins, 3.
or striking a Ball,
through a Ring, 5.
with a Bandy, 4.
or scourging a Top, 6.
with a Whip, 7.
173 or shooting with a Trunk, 8.
and a Bow, 9. or going
upon Stilts, 10, or
tossing and swinging themselves
upon a Merry-totter, 11.
Pueri solent ludere
vel Globis fictilibus, 1.
vel jactantes Globum, 2.
ad Conas, 3.
vel mittentes Sphærulam
per Annulum, 5.
Clava, 4.
versantes Turbinem, 6.
Flagello, 7.
vel jaculantes Sclopo, 8.
& Arcu, 9. vel incidentes
Grallis, 10. vel
super Petaurum, 11.
se agitantes & oscillantes.


The Kingdom and the Region.

Regnum & Regio.

Chapter 137

Many Cities and Villages
make a Region
and a Kingdom.
Multæ Urbes & Pagi
faciunt Regionem
& Regnum.
The King or Prince
resideth in the chief City, 1.
the Noblemen, Lords,
and Earls dwell
in the Castles, 2.
that lie about it;
the Country People
dwell in Villages, 3.
Rex aut Princeps
sedet in Metropoli. 1.
Nobiles, Barones,
& Comites habitant
in Arcibus, 2.
in Pagis, 3.
174 He hath his toll-places
upon navigable Rivers, 4.
and high-Roads, 5.
where Portage and Tollage
is exacted of them
that sail
or travel.
Habet telonia sua
juxta Flumina navigabilia, 4.
& Vias regias, 5.
ubi Portorum & Vectigal
a navigantibus
& iter facientibus.


Regal Majesty.

Regia Majestas.

Chapter 138

The King, 1.
sitteth on his Throne, 2.
in Kingly State,
with a stately Habit, 3.
crowned with a Diadem, 4.
holding a Scepter, 5.
in his Hand,
being attended with
a Company of Courtiers.
Rex, 1.
sedet in suo Solio, 2.
in regio splendore,
magnifico Habitu, 3.
redimitus Diademate, 4.
tenens Sceptrum, 5.
frequentiâ Aulicorum.
The chief among these,
are the Chancellor, 6.
with the Counsellors
175 and Secretaries,
the Lord-marshall, 7.
the Comptroller, 8.
the Cup-bearer, 9.
the Taster, 10.
the Treasurer, 11.
the High Chamberlain, 12.
and the Master of the
, 13.
Inter hos primarii
sunt Cancellarius, 6.
cum Consiliariis
& Secretariis,
Præfectus Prætorii, 7.
Aulæ Magister, 8.
Pocillator (pincerna), 9.
Dapifer, 10.
Thesaurarius, 11.
Archi-Cubicularius, 12.
& Stabuli Magister, 13.
There are subordinate
to these
the Noble Courtiers, 14.
the Noble Pages, 15.
with the Chamberlains,
and Lacquies, 16.
the Guard, 17.
with their Attendance.
Nobiles Aulici, 14.
Nobile Famulitium, 15.
cum Cubiculariis,
& Cursoribus, 16.
Stipatores, 17.
cum Satellitio.
He solemnly giveth
to the Ambassadors
of Foreign Princes, 18.
Solemniter recipit
exterorum, 18.
He sendeth
his Vice-gerents,
Governors, Treasurers,
and Ambassadors
to other places,
to whom he sendeth
new Commissions
ever and anon
by the Posts, 19.
Vicarios suos,
Præfectos, Quæstores,
& Legatos,
quibus mittit
Mandata nova
per Veredarios, 19.
The Fool, 20.
maketh Laughter
by his toysom Actions.
Morio, 20.
movet Risum
ludicris Actionibus.


The Soldier.


Chapter 139

If we be to make War
Soldiers are lifted, 1.
Si bellandum est
scribuntur Milites. 1.
Their Arms are
a Head-piece, 2.
(which is adorned with a
Crest) and the Armour,
whose parts are a Collar, 3.
a Breast-plate, 4.
Arm-pieces, 5.
Leg-pieces, 6.
Greaves, 7.
with a Coat of Mail, 8.
and a Buckler, 9.
these are the defensive Arms.
Horum Arma sunt,
Galea (Cassis, 2.)
(quæ ornatur
Cristâ) & Armatura,
cujus partes Torquis ferreus, 3.
Thorax, 4.
Brachialia, 5.
Ocreæ ferreæ, 6.
Manicæ, 7.
cum Lorica, 8.
& Scuto (Clypeo), 9.
hæc sunt Arma defensiva.
The offensive are
a Sword, 10.
a two-edged Sword, 11.
a Falchion, 12.
which are put up into
a Scabbard, 13.
and are girded with
a Girdle, 14. or Belt, 15.
177 (a Scarf, 16.
serveth for ornament)
a two handed-Sword, 17.
and a Dagger, 18.
Offensiva sunt
Gladius, 10.
Framea, 11.
& Acinaces, 12.
qui reconduntur
Vaginâ, 13.
Cingulo, 14. vel Baltheo, 15.
(Fascia militaris, 16.
inservit ornatui)
Romphæa, 17.
& Pugio, 18.
In these is the Haft, 19.
with the Pummel, 20.
and the Blade, 21.
having a Point, 22.
in the middle are
the Back, 23. and the Edge, 24.
In his est Manubrium, 19.
cum Pomo, 20.
& Verutum, 21.
Cuspidatum, 22.
in medio
Dorsum, 23. & Acies, 24.
The other Weapons are
a Pike, 25. a Halbert, 26.
(in which is the Haft, 27.
and the Head, 28.)
a Club, 29. and a Whirlebat, 30.
Reliqua arma sunt
Hasta, 25. Bipennis, 26.
(in quibus Hastile, 27.
& Mucro, 28.)
Clava, 29. & Cœstus, 30.
They fight at a distance
with Muskets, 31.
and Pistols, 32. which
are charged with Bullets, 33.
out of a Bullet-bag, 34.
and with Gun-powder
out of a Bandalier, 35.
Pugnatur eminùs
Bombardis (Sclopetis), 31.
& Sclopis, 32. quæ
onerantur Globis, 33.
è Theca bombardica, 34.
& Pulvere nitrato
è Pyxide pulveraria, 35.


The Camps.


Chapter 140

178 When a Design is undertaken
the Camp, 1. is pitched
and the Tents
of Canvas, 2. or Straw, 3.
are fastned with Stakes;
and they entrench them about
for security’s sake,
with Bulwarks, 4.
and Ditches, 5.
Sentinels, 6. are also set;
and Scouts, 7. are sent out.
Expeditione susceptâ,
Castra, 1. locantur
& Tentoria
, 2. vel Stramentis, 3.
figuntur Paxillis;
eaque circumdant,
securitatis gratiâ
Aggeribus, 4.
& Fossis, 5.
Excubiæ, 6. constituuntur;
& Exploratores, 7. emittuntur.
Sallyings out, 8.
are made for Forage
and Plunder-sake, where
they often cope with
the Enemy, 9. in skirmishing.
Excursiones, 8.
fiunt Pabulationis
& Prædæ causâ, ubi
sæpius confligitur cum
Hostibus, 9. velitando.
The Pavilion
of the Lord General is in
the midst of the Camp, 10.
summi Imperatoris est in
medio Castrorum, 10.


The Army and the Fight.

Acies & Prœlium.

Chapter 141

When the Battel
179 is to be fought
the Army is set in order,
and divided into the Front, 1.
the Rere, 2.
and the Wings, 3.
Quando Pugna
committenda est,
Acies instruitur,
& dividitur in Frontem, 1.
Tergum, 2.
& Alas (Cornua), 3.
The Foot, 4.
are intermixed
with the Horse, 5.
Peditatus, 4.
Equitatui, 5.
That is divided
into Companies,
this into Troops.
Ille distinguitur
in Centurias,
hic in Turmas.
These carry Banners, 6.
those Flags, 7.
in the midst of them.
Illæ in medio
ferunt Vexilla, 6.
Labara, 7.
Their Officers are,
Corporals, Ensigns,
Lieutenants, Captains, 8.
Commanders of the Horse, 9.
Lieutenant Colonels,
and he that is the chief of all,
the General.
Eorum Præfecti sunt,
Decuriones, Signiferi,
Vicarii, Centuriones, 8.
Magistri Equitum, 9.
& summus omnium
The Drummers, 10.
and the Drumslades, 11.
as also the Trumpeters, 12.
call to Arms,
and inflame the Soldier.
Tympanistæ, 10.
& Tympanotribæ, 11.
ut & Tubicines, 12.
vocant ad Arma
& inflammant Militem.
At the first Onset
the Muskets, 13. and
Ordnance, 14. are shot off.
Primo Conflictu,
Bombardæ, 13. &
Tormenta, 14. exploduntur.
Afterwards they fight, 15.
hand to hand
with Pikes and Swords.
Postea pugnatur, 15.
Hastis & Gladiis.
They that are overcome
are slain, 16.
or taken prisoners,
or run away, 17.
trucidantur, 16.
vel capiuntur,
vel aufugiunt, 17.
They that are for
the Reserve
, 18.
come upon them
180 out of their places where
they lay in wait
Succenturiati, 18.
ex insidiis.
The Carriages, 19.
are plundered.
Impedimenta, 19.


The Sea-Fight.

Pugna Navalis.

Chapter 142

A Sea-fight
is terrible,
when huge Ships,
like Castles,
run one upon another
with their Beaks, 1.
or shatter one another
with their Ordnance, 2.
and so being bored thorow
they drink in
their own Destruction,
and are sunk, 3.
Navale prœlium
terribile est,
quum ingentes Naves,
veluti Arces,
Rostris, 1.
aut se invicem quassant
Tormentis, 2.
atque ita perforatæ,
perniciem suam
& submerguntur, 3.
Or when they are set on fire
and either by the firing
of Gun-powder, 4.
181 men are blown up into the air,
or are burnt in
the midst of the waters,
or else leaping into
the Sea are drowned.
Aut quum igne corripiuntur,
& vel ex incendio
pulveris tormentarii, 4.
homines ejiciuntur in ærem,
vel exuruntur in
mediis aquis,
vel etiam desilientes in
mare, suffocantur.
A Ship that flieth away, 5.
is overtaken
by those that pursue her, 6.
and is taken.
Navis fugitiva, 5.
ab insequentibus, 6.
& capitur.


The Besieging of a City.

Obsidium Urbis.

Chapter 143

A City that
is like to endure a Siege,
is first summoned
by a Trumpeter, 1.
and persuaded to yield.
passura Obsidionem,
primum provocatur
per Tubicinem, 1.
& invitatur ad Depitionem.
Which if it refuseth to do,
it is assaulted by the Besiegers,
and taken by storm.
Quod si abnuat facere,
oppugnatur ab Obsidentibus
& occupatur.
Either by climbing over
the walls with
Scaling-ladders, 2.
182 or breaking them down
with Battering-engins, 3.
or demolishing them
with great Guns, 4.
or breaking through
the Gates with a Petarr, 5.
or casting Granadoes, 6.
out of Mortar-pieces, 7.
into the City,
by Engineers, 8.
(who lye behind
Leagure-baskets, 9.)
or overthrowing it with
Mines by Pioneers, 10.
Vel muros
per Scalas, 2.
aut diruendo
Arietibus, 3.
aut demoliendo
Tormentis, 4.
vel dirumpendo
portas Exostra, 5.
vel ejaculando Globos
, 6.
e Mortariis (balistis), 7.
in Urbem
per Balistarios, 8.
(qui latitant post
Gerras, 9.)
vel subvertendo
Cuniculis per Fossores, 10,
They that are besieged
defend themselves
from the Walls, 11.
with fire and stones, &c,
or break out by force, 12.
defendunt se
de Muris, 11.
ignibus, lapidibus, &c.
aut erumpunt, 12.
A City
that is taken by Storm

is plundered,
and sometimes laid even
with the ground.
vi expugnata
interdum equatur




Chapter 144

Godliness, 1.
the Queen of Vertues,
worshippeth God, 4. devoutly,
the Knowledge of God
being drawn either from
the Book of Nature, 2.
(for the work commendeth
the Work-master)
or from
the Book of Scripture, 3.
she meditateth upon
his Commandments contained
in the Decalogue, 5.
and treading Reason under foot,
that Barking Dog, 6.
she giveth Faith, 7.
and assent
to the Word of God,
and calleth upon him, 8.
as a Helper in adversity.
Pietas, 1.
Regina Virtutum
colit Deum, 4. humiliter,
Notitiâ Dei,
haustâ vel ex
Libro Naturæ, 2.
(nam opus commendat
vel ex
Libro Scripturæ, 3.
Mandata ejus comprehensa
in Decalogo, 5.
& conculcans Rationem,
oblatrantem Canem, 6.
præbet Fidem, 7.
& assensum
Verbo Dei,
eumque invocat, 8.
ut Opitulatorem in adversis.
Divine Services
184 are done in the Church, 9.
in which are the Quire, 10.
with the Altar, 11.
the Vestry, 12.
the Pulpit, 13.
Seats, 14.
Galleries, 15.
and a Font, 16.
Officia Divina
fiunt in Templo, 9.
in quo est Penetrale
(Adytum, 10.) cum Altari, 11.
Sacrarium, 12.
Suggestus, 13.
Subsellia, 14.
Ambones, 15.
& Baptisterium, 16.
All men perceive
that there is a God,
but all men do not
rightly know God.
Omnes homines sentiunt
esse Deum,
sed non omnes
rectè nôrunt Deum.
Hence are divers Religions
whereof IV. are reckoned
yet as the chief.
Hinc diversæ Religiones
quarum IV. numerantur
adhuc primariæ.




Chapter 145

The Gentiles feigned
to themselves near upon
XIIM. Deities.
Gentiles finxerunt
sibi prope
XIIM. Numina.
The chief of them were
Jupiter, 1. President, and
petty-God of Heaven;
185 Neptune, 2. of the Sea;
Pluto, 3. of Hell;
Mars, 4. of War;
Apollo, 5. of Arts;
Mercury, 6. of Thieves,
and Eloquence;
Vulcan, (Mulciber)
of Fire and Smiths;
Æolus, of Winds:
and the most obscene of
all the rest, Priapus.
Eorum præcipua erant
Jupiter, 1. Præses &
Deaster cœli;
Neptunus, 2. Maris;
Pluto, 3. Inferni;
Mars, 4. Belli;
Apollo, 5. Artium;
Mercurius, 6. Furum,
& Eloquentiæ;
Vulcanus (Mulciber),
Ignis & Fabrorum;
Æolus, Ventorum;
& obscænissimus,
They had also
Womanly Deities:
such as were Venus, 7.
the Goddess of Loves,
and Pleasures, with
her little son Cupid, 8.
Minerva (Pallas), with
the nine Muses of Arts;
Juno, of Riches and Weddings;
Vesta, of Chastity;
Ceres, of Corn;
Diana, of Hunting,
and Fortune;
and besides these Morbona,
and Febris her self.
Habuerant etiam
Muliebria Numina;
qualia fuerunt Venus, 7.
Dea Amorum,
& Voluptatum, cum
filiolo Cupidine, 8.
Minerva (Pallas), cum
novem Musis Artium;
Juno, Divitiarum & Nuptiarum;
Vesta, Castitatis;
Ceres, Frumentorum;
Diana, Venationum;
& Fortuna:
quin & Morbona,
ac Febris ipsa.
The Egyptians,
instead of God
worshipped all sorts
of Beasts and Plants,
and whatsoever they saw
first in the morning.
pro Deo
colebant omne genus
Animalium & Plantarum,
& quicquid conspiciebantur
primum mane.
The Philistines offered
to Moloch, 9. their Children
to be burnt alive
Philistæi offerebant
Molocho (Saturno), 9.
Infantes cremandos vivos.
The Indians, 10.
even to this day,
worship the Devil, 11.
Indi, 10.
venerantur Cacodæmona, 11.




Chapter 146

Yet the true Worship
of the true God,
remained with the Patriarchs,
who lived before
and after the Flood.
Verus tamem Cultus
veri Dei,
remansit apud Patriarchas,
qui vixerunt ante
& post Diluvium.
Amongst these,
that Seed of the Woman,
the Messias of the World,
was promised to Abraham, 1.
the Founder of the Jews,
the Father of them that believe:
and he (being called away
from the Gentiles)
with his Posterity,
being marked with
the Sacrament of Circumcision, 2.
made a peculiar people,
and Church of God.
Inter hos,
Semen illud Mulieris,
Messias Mundi,
promissus est Abrahamo. 1.
Conditori Judæorum,
Patri credentium:
& ipse (avocatus
a Gentilibus)
cum Posteris,
notatus Sacramento
, 2.
constitutus singularis populus,
& Ecclesia Dei.
Afterwards God
gave his Law,
written with his own Finger
in Tables of Stone, 5.
to this people
187 by Moses, 3.
in Mount Sinai, 4.
Postea Deus
exhibuit Legem suam,
scriptam Digito suo
in Tabulis Lapideis, 5.
huic Populo
per Mosen, 3.
in Monte Sinai, 4.
Furthermore, he ordained
the eating the Paschal Lamb, 6.
and Sacrifices
to be offered upon an Altar, 7.
by Priests, 8.
and Incense, 9. and commanded
a Tabernacle, 10.
with the Ark of the Covenant, 11.
to be made:
and besides,
a brazen Serpent, 12.
to be set up against
the biting of Serpents in
the Wilderness.
Porrò ordinavit
manducationem Agni
, 6. & Sacrificia
offerenda in Altari, 7.
per Sacerdotes, 8.
& Suffitus, 9. & jussit
Tabernaculum, 10.
cum Arca Fœderis, 11.
æneum Serpentem, 12.
erigi contra
morsum Serpentum in
All which things
were Types of the Messias
to come, whom
the Jews yet look for.
Quæ omnia
Typi erant Messiæ
venturi, quem
Judæi adhuc expectant.




Chapter 147

The only begotten eternal
Son of God, 3.
188 being promised to
our first Parents in Paradise,
at the last being conceived
by the Holy Ghost,
in the most Holy Womb
of the Virgin Mary, 1.
of the royal house of David
and clad with humane flesh,
came into the World
at Bethlehem of Judæa,
in the extream poverty
of a Stable, 2.
in the fullness of time,
in the year of the world 3970,
but pure from all sin,
and the name of Jesus
was given him,
which signifieth a Saviour.
Unigenitus æternus
Dei Filius, 3.
Protoplastis in Paradiso,
tandem conceptus
per Sanctum Spiritum
in sanctissimo utero
Virginis Mariæ, 1.
de domo regiâ Davidis,
& indutus humanâ carne,
prodiit in mundum
Bethlehemæ Judæâ,
in summâ paupertate
Stabuli, 2.
impleto tempore,
Anno Mundi 3970,
sed mundus ab omni peccato
& nomen Jesu
impositum fuit ei,
quod significat Salvatorem.
When he was sprinkled
with holy Baptism, 4.
(the Sacrament
of the new Covenant)
by John
his Forerunner, 5.
in Jordan,
the most sacred Mystery
of the divine Trinity,
by the Father’s voice, 6.
(whereby he testified
that this was his Son)
and the Holy Ghost
in the shape of a Dove, 7.
coming down from Heaven.
Hic, cum imbueretur
sacro Baptismo, 4.
novi Fœderis
à Johanne
præcursore suo, 5.
in Jordane
sacratissimum Mysterium
Divinæ Trinitatis,
Patris voce, 6.
(quâ testabatur
hunc esse Filium suum)
& Spiritu sancto
in specie Columbæ, 7.
delabente cœlitus.
From that time,
being the 30th year of his Age,
unto the fourth year,
he declared who he was,
his words and works
manifesting his Divinity,
being neither owned,
nor entertained by the Jews,
because of his voluntary poverty.
Ab eo tempore,
tricesimo anno ætatis suæ,
usque an annum quartum,
declaravit quis esset,
verbis & operibus
præ se ferentibus Divinitatem,
nec agnitus,
nec acceptus a Judæis,
ob voluntariam paupertatem.
189 He was at last taken by
these (when he had first
instituted the Mystical Supper, 8.
of his Body and Blood
for a Seal
of the new Covenant and
the remembrance of himself)
carried to the Judgment-seat
of Pilate
Governour under Cæsar,
accused and condemned
as an innocent Lamb; and
being fastned upon a Cross, 9.
he dyed, being
sacrificed upon the Altar
for the sins of the World.
Captus tandem ab
his (quum prius
instituisset Cœnam Mysticam, 8.
Corporis & Sanguinis sui,
in Sigillum
novi Fœderis, &
sui recordationem)
raptus ad Tribunal
Præfecti Cæsarei,
accusatus & damnatus est
Agnus innocentissimus;
actusque in Crucem, 9.
mortem subiit,
immolatus in arâ
pro peccatis mundi.
But when he had revived
by his Divine Power,
he rose again the third day
out of the Grave, 10.
and forty days after
being taken up
from Mount Olivet, 11.
into Heaven, 12.
and returning thither
whence he came,
he vanished as it were,
while the Apostles, 13.
gazed upon him,
Sed quum revixisset
Divinâ suâ Virtute,
resurrexit tertia die
è Sepulchro, 10.
& post dies XL.
de Monte Oliveti, 11.
in Cœlum, 12.
& eo rediens
unde venerat,
quasi evanuit,
Apostolis, 13.
to whom he sent
his Holy Spirit, 14.
from Heaven, the tenth day
after his Ascension,
and them,
(being filled with his power)
into the World
to preach of him;
being henceforth to come again
to the last Judgment,
sitting in the mean time
190 at the right hand
of the Father
and interceding for us.
quibus misit
Spiritum Sanctum, 14.
de Cœlo, decima die
post Ascensum,
ipsos vero,
(hac virtute impletos)
in Mundum
olim rediturus
ad Judicium extremum,
interea sedens
ad dextram
& intercedens pro nobis.
From this Christ
we are called Christians,
and are saved in him alone.
Ab hoc Christo
dicimur Christiani,
inque eo solo salvamur.




Chapter 148

Mahomet, 1.
a warlike Man,
invented to himself
a new Religion,
mixed with Judaism,
Christianity and Gentilism,
by the advice of a Jew, 2.
and an Arian Monk, 3.
named Sergius; feigning,
whilst he had the Fit of
the Falling-sickness
that the Archangel Gabriel
and the Holy Ghost,
talked with him,
191 using a Pigeon, 4.
to fetch Meat
out of his Ear.
Mahomet, 1.
Homo bellator,
excogitabat sibi
novam Religionem,
mixtam ex Judaismo,
Christianismo & Gentilismo,
consilio Judæi, 2.
& Monachi Ariani, 3.
nomine Sergii; fingens,
dum laboraret Epilepsia,
Archangelum Gabrielem,
& Spiritum Sanctum,
secum colloqui,
adsuefaciens Columbam, 4.
petere Escam
ex Aure sua.
His Followers
refrain themselves
from Wine;
are circumcised,
have many Wives;
build Chapels, 5.
from the Steeples whereof,
they are called to Holy Service
not by Bells,
but by a Priest, 6.
they wash themselves often, 7.
they deny the Holy Trinity:
they honour Christ,
not as the Son of God,
but as a great Prophet,
yet less than Mahomet;
they call their Law,
the Alchoran.
Asseclæ ejus
abstinent se
à Vino;
sunt Polygami;
exstruunt Sacella, 5.
de quorum Turriculis,
convocantur ad sacra
non a Campanis,
sed a Sacerdote, 6.
sæpius se abluunt, 7.
negant SS. Trinitatem:
Christum honorant,
non ut Dei Filium,
sed ut magnum Prophetam,
minorem tamen Mahomete;
Legem suam vocant


Gods Providence.

Providentia Dei.

Chapter 149

Mens States
192 are not to be attributed
to Fortune or Chance,
or the Influence of the Stars,
(Comets, 1. indeed
are wont to portend no good)
but to the provident
Eye of God, 2.
and to his governing Hand, 3.
even our Sights,
or Oversights,
or even our Faults.
Humanæ Sortes
non tribuendæ sunt
Fortunæ aut Casui,
aut Influxui Siderum,
(Cometæ, 1. quidem
solent nihil boni portendere)
sed provido
Dei Oculo, 2.
& ejusdem Manui rectrici, 3.
etiam nostræ Prudentiæ,
vel Imprudentiæ,
vel etiam Noxæ.
God hath his Ministers
and Angels, 4.
who accompany a Man, 5.
from his birth,
as Guardians,
against wicked Spirits,
or the Devil, 6.
who every minute
layeth wait for him,
to tempt
and vex him.
Deus habet Ministros suos,
& Angelos, 4.
qui associant se Homini, 5.
à nativitate ejus,
ut Custodes,
contra malignos Spiritus,
seu Diabolum, 6.
qui minutatim
struit insidias ei,
ad tentandum
vel vexandum.
Wo to the mad
Wizzards and Witches
who give themselves
to the Devil,
(being inclosed in a Circle, 7.
calling upon him
with Charms)
they dally with him,
and fall from God!
for they shall receive
their reward with him.
Væ dementibus
Magis & Lamiis
qui Cacodæmoni
se dedunt
(inclusi Circulo, 7.
eum advocantes
cum eo colludunt
& à Deo deficiunt!
nam cum illo
mercedem accipient.


The Last Judgment.

Judicium extremum.

Chapter 150

For the last day
shall come
which shall raise up
the Dead, 2.
with the sound of a Trumpet, 1.
and summon the Quick
with them
to the Judgment-seat
of Christ Jesus, 3.
(appearing in the Clouds)
to give an Account
of all things done.
Nam dies novissima
quæ resuscitabit
Mortuos, 2.
voce Tubæ, 1.
& citabit Vivos,
cum illis
ad Tribunal
Jesu Christi, 3.
(apparentis in Nubibus)
ad reddendam rationem
omnium actorum.
When the Godly & Elect, 4.
shall enter into life eternal
into the place of Bliss,
and the new Hierusalem, 5.
Ubi pii (justi) & Electi, 4.
introibunt in vitam æternam,
in locum Beatitudinis
& novum Hierosolymam, 5.
But the Wicked
and the damned, 6.
shall be thrust into Hell, 8.
with the Devils, 7.
to be there tormented for ever.
Impii vero,
& damnati, 6.
cum Cacodæmonibus, 7.
in Gehennum, 8. detrudentur,
ibi cruciandi æternum.


The Close.


Chapter 151

Thus thou hast seen
in short, all things
that can be shewed,
and hast learned
the chief Words
of the English and Latin
Ita vidisti
summatim res omnes
quæ poterunt ostendi,
& didicisti
Voces primarias
Anglicæ & Latinæ
Go on now and read
other good Books diligently,
and thou shalt become
learned, wise, and godly.
Perge nunc & lege
diligenter alias bonos Libros,
ut fias
doctus, sapiens, & pius.
Remember these things;
fear God, and call upon him,
that he may bestow
upon thee
the Spirit of Wisdom.
Memento horum;
Deum time, & invoca eum,
ut largiatur
Spiritum Sapientiæ.
Farewell. Vale.



Index Titulorum.

See note on chapter numbering. The chapter number for Invitatio (1) was missing; there is no entry for Clausula (151). Chapter references 64–104 were off by one (printed as 63–103) and have been silently corrected. Only those with additional errors are individually marked.

Cap. A. Pag.
141 Acies & Prælium 178
6 Aer 10
46 Agricultura 58
33 Amphibia 40
43 Animi hominis 54
19 Animalia & primum Aves 24
7 Aqua 12
13 Arbor 17
119 Arbor Consanguinitatis 150
128 Ars Medica 163
92 Ars Scriptoria 112
100 Artes Sermonis 121
52 Aucupium 65
24 Aves Aquaticæ 30
22 Aves Campestres & Sylvestres 28
20 Aves Domesticæ 25
23 Aves Rapaces 29
75 Balneum 91
96 Bibliopegus 117
95 Bibliopolium 116
41 Canales & Ossa 50
39 Caput & Manus 47
40 Caro & Viscera 49
140 Castra 177
147 Christianismus 187
4 Cœlum 7
58 Convivium 72
55 Coquinaria 68
135 Cursus Certamina 171
44 Deformes & Monstrosi 55
2 Deus 5
67 Domus 82
106 Eclipses 131
84 Eques 102
77 Equile 194
109 Ethica 36
108 Europa 134
69 Faber Ferrarius 85
64 Faber lignarius 79
65 Faber murarius 80
30 Feræ Bestiæ 36
29 Feræ Pecudes 35
71 Figulus 87
15 Flores 20
113 Fortitudo 141
14 Fructus Arborum 18
17 Fruges 22
18 Frutices 23
145 Gentilismus 184
103 Geometria 126
36 Homo 43
78 Horologia 95
45 Hortorum cultura 56
115 Humanitas 144
73 Hypocaustum cum Dormitorio 89
5 Ignis 8
32 Insecta repentia 38
25 Insecta volantia 31
101 Instrumenta Musica 123
123 Interiora Urbis 156
1 Invitatio 1
146 Judaismus 186
124 Judicium 157
150 Jud’m extremum 193
28 Jumenta 34
116 Justitia 145
196 L.
12 Lapides 15
54 Lanionia 67
97 Liber 118
117 Liberalitas 147
61 Lintea 76
134 Ludus Aleæ 170
136 Ludi pueriles 172
133 Ludus Pilæ 169
130 Ludus Scenicus 166
66 Machinæ 81
148 Mahometismus 190
35 Marinæ Pisces & Conchæ 42
48 Mellificium 61
38 Membra Hominis Externa 45
127 Mensuræ & Pondera 162
126 Mercatura 161
68 Metallifodina 84
11 Metalla 15
139 Miles 176
49 Molitura 62
3 Mundus 6
99 Museum 120
88 Natatus 107
91 Naufragium 111
89 Navis actuaria 108
90 Navis oneraria 109
8 Nubes 12
143 Obsidium Urbis 181
16 Olera 21
21 Oscines 27
132 Palæstra 168
50 Panificium 63
93 Papyrus 113
72 Partes Domus 88
114 Patientia 142
27 Pecora 33
47 Pecuaria 59
105 Phases Lunæ 130
102 Philosophia 125
79 Pictura 96
51 Piscatio 64
34 Pisces Fluviatiles 41
104 Planet. Aspectus 129
131 Præstigiæ 167
149 Providentia Dei 191
110 Prudentia 137
142 Pugna Navalis 180
74 Putei 90
26 Quadrupedia & primum Domestica 32
138 Regia Majestas 174
137 Regnum & Regio 173
144 Religio 183
82 Restio & Lorarius 99
62 Sartor 77
98 Schola 119
70 Scriniarius & Tornator 86
111 Sedulitas 139
42 Sensus externi & interni 52
37 Septum Ætat. Hominis 44
129 Sepultura 165
31 Serpentes & Reptilia 37
197 118 Societas Conjugalis 144
121 Societas Herilis 153
120 Soc’tas Parentalis 152
80 Specularia 97
104 Sphæra cœlestis 127
107 Sphæra terrestris 132
125 Supplicia Maleficiorum 159
63 Sutor 78
112 Temperantia 140
9 Terra 13
10 Terræ fœtus 14
60 Textura 75
76 Tonstrina 93
59 Tractio Lini 74
87 Transitus Aqua’m 106
94 Typographia 114
86 Vectura 105
85 Vehicula 103
53 Venatus 66
83 Viator 100
81 Vietor 98
56 Vindemia 70
122 Urbs 144
57 Zythopœia 71

An Index of the Titles.

See note on chapter numbering. Chapter numbers for The Invitation (1) and The Close (151) were missing. Chapter references 64–104 were off by one (printed as 63–103) and have been silently corrected. Only those with additional errors are individually marked. Minor differences in spelling and hyphenization are not marked.

Chap. A. Page.
37 The Seven Ages of Man 44
6 The Air 10
33 Amphibious Creatures 40
105 The Apparitions of the Moon 130
141 The Army and the Fight 178
100 Arts belonging to Speech 121
104 The Aspects of the Planets 129
75 The Bath 91
76 The Barbers Shop 93
28 Labouring Beasts 34
30 Wild Beasts 36
143 The Besieging of a City 181
19 Birds 24
22 Birds that live in the Fields and Woods 28
23 Ravenous Birds 29
21 Singing Birds 27
41 The Chanels and Bones 50
97 A Book 118
96 The Book-binder 117
95 The Book-sellers Shop 116
70 The Box-maker 86
136 Boys Sports 172
50 Bread-baking 63
57 Brewing 71
129 A Burial 165
54 Butchery 67
198 C.
104 The Celestial Sphere 127
140 The Camp 177
85 Carriages 103
86 Carrying to and fro 105
64 The Carpenter 79
27 Herd-Cattle 33
29 Wild-Cattle 35
41 The Chanels and Bones 50
147 Christianity 187
123 A City 154
143 The Besieging of a City 181
123 The Inward parts of a City 156
151 The Close 194
8 The Clouds 12
119 The Tree of Consanguinity 150
56 Cookery 68
81 The Cooper 98
82 The Cord-wainer 99
17 Corn 22
32 Crawling Vermin 38
33 Creatures that live as well by water as by land 40
31 Creeping things 37
44 Deformed and monstrous People 55
78 Dials 95
134 Dice-play 170
111 Diligence 139
45 The Dressing of Gardens 56
9 The Earth 13
106 The Eclipses 131
66 Engines 81
108 Europe 134
58 A Feast 72
132 The Fencing-School 168
5 Fire 8
51 Fishing 64
34 River-fish and Pond-fish 41
35 Sea-fish and Shell-fish 43
40 The Flesh and Bowels 49
15 Flowers 20
25 Flying Vermin 31
113 Fortitude 141
26 Four footed Beasts about the House 32
52 Fowling 65
20 Tame-Fowl 25
24 Water-Fowl 30
10 The Fruits of the Earth 14
14 Fruits of Trees 18
89 A Galley 108
145 Gentilism 184
103 Geometry 126
2 God 5
149 God’s Providence 191
47 Grasing 59
49 Grinding 62
39 The Head and the Hands 47
16 Pot-herbs 21
199 27 Herd-Cattle 33
4 Heaven 7
48 The making of Honey 61
84 The Horseman 102
67 A House 82
72 The parts of a House 88
115 Humanity 144
53 Hunting 66
46 Husbandry 58
1 The Invitation 1
101 Musical Instruments 123
146 Judaism 186
124 Judgment 157
150 The last Judgment 193
116 Justice 145
137 The Kingdom and Region 173
28 Labouring Beasts 34
117 Liberality 147
19 Living Creatures 24
59 The dressing of Line 74
61 Linen Cloaths 76
80 Looking-glasses 97
148 Mahometism 190
138 Kingly Majesty 174
36 Man 43
37 The Seven Ages of Man 44
38 The outward parts of a Man 45
65 The Mason 80
127 Measures and Weights 162
126 Merchandizing 161
90 A Merchant Ship 109
11 Metals 15
68 A Mine 84
105 The Apparitions of the Moon 137
109 Moral Philosophy 136
101 Musical Inst’ments 123
93 Paper 113
87 Passage over Waters 106
114 Patience 142
102 Philosophy 125
109 Moral Philosophy 136
128 Physick 163
79 The Picture 96
34 Pond-fish 41
16 Pot-herbs 21
71 The Potter 87
94 Printing 114
149 God’s Providence 191
110 Prudence 137
135 Races 171
23 Ravenous Birds 29
144 Religion 183
34 River-fish 41
82 The Roper 99
138 Regal Majesty 174
98 A School 119
142 The Sea-fight 180
35 Sea-fish and Shell-fish 42
42 The outward and inward Senses 52
31 Serpents 37
91 Shipwreck 111
200 63 The Shoe-maker 78
18 Shrubs 23
21 Singing Birds 27
131 Sleights 167
118 The Society betwixt Man and Wife 148
120 The Society betwixt Parents and Children 152
121 The Society betwixt Master and Servant 153
43 The Soul of Man 54
139 The Souldier 176
69 The Black-smith 85
136 Boys Sports 172
104 The Celestial Sphere 127
107 The Terrestial Sphere 132
100 Arts belonging to Speech 121
77 The Stable 94
130 A Stage-play 166
12 Stones 16
73 The Stove with the Bed-room 89
99 The Study 120
88 Swimming 107
62 The Taylor 77
112 Temperance 140
133 Tennis play 169
107 The Terrestial Sphere 132
125 The Torments of Malefactors 159
83 The Travellor 100
13 A Tree 17
70 The Turner 86
25 Flying Vermin 31
32 Crawling Vermin 38
56 The Vintage 70
7 The Water 11
60 Weaving 75
74 Wells 90
29 Wild Cattle 35
30 Wild Beasts 36
3 The World 6
92 Writing 112

Trinuni Deo Gloria.


Original Title Page

Joh. Amos Comenii

Orbis Sensualium Pictus:

Omnium principalium in Mundo
Rerum, & in Vita Actionum,

Pictura & Nomenclatura.

Joh. Amos Comenius’s



Nomenclature, and Pictures

Chief Things that are in the World, and
of Mens Employments therein;

In above 150 Copper Cuts.

By the Author in Latin and High Dutch, being
one of his last Essays; and the most suitable to
Childrens Capacity of any he hath hitherto made.
Translated into English

By Charles Hoole, M.A.

For the Use of Young Latin Scholars.
The Eleventh Edition Corrected, and the English made to
answer Word for Word to the Latin.
Nihil est in intellectu, quod non prius fuit in sensu. Arist.
London; Printed for, and sold by John and Benj.
, at the Bell in Little Britain, 1728.

Additional Notes

Editor’s Preface:

The text for the English translation is from the English edition of 1727, in which for the first time the English words were so arranged as to stand opposite their Latin equivalents.

The 1659 English translation has the same general layout, but word order within sentences is often different, as explained in the “Advertisement” to the 1727 edition.

Chapter Numbering

In the 1659 edition the Invitatio and Clausula (Close) are unnumbered, and in the 1727 edition there are two chapters CIV (104). In the 1727 Index, and in the numbers visible in the corner of some illustrations, chapter numbers 64 through 104 were off by one (printed as 63–103).

Chapter Name 1659 text 1727 index 1727 text
Invitation I (1)
God I (1) 2 II (2)
... ... ...
Shoemaker LXII (62) 63 LXIII (63)
Carpenter LXIII (63) 63 LXIV (64)
... ... ...
Geometry CII (102) 102 CIII (103)
Celestial Sphere CIII (103) 103 CIV (104)
Aspects of the Planets CIV (104) 104 CIV (104)
... ... ...
The Last Judgement CL (150) 150 CL (150)
The Close CLI (151)
Transcriber’s Footnotes

Chapter XIX
“here the king’s Fisher
The printed text reads “Fisher ... here the king’s”. The 1659 edition may explain the error:

partial page image showing overflow word ‘Fisher’

Chapter CX
“She proposeth ... End, to her Actions; Actionibus suis præfigit Scopum ...”
Text shown as printed. The first Latin line corresponds to the last English line.

Chapter CXII
Revellers ... babble; Heluones ... rixantur.”
The 1659 edition has “brabble”, meaning “quarrel” or “brawl”.

Chapter CXXVII
Illustration shown as printed. For comparison, here is the equivalent illustration from the 1659 edition:

illustration from 1659

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Orbis Pictus, by John Amos Comenius


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