vel Commentarii de Vita Mea ad Dubras anno MDCCCXCIX
Ora Maritima inter Dubras et Rutupias
I. Ora maritima.
(First Declension of Nouns and Adjectives, together with the Present Indicative of sum and of the First Conjugation.)
1. Quam bella est ora maritima! Non procul ab ora maritima est villa. In villa amita mea habitat; et ego cum amita mea nunc habito. Ante ianuam villae est area. In area est castanea, ubi luscinia interdum cantat. Sub umbra castaneae ancilla interdum cenam parat. Amo oram maritimam; amo villam bellam.
(English words connected with the Latin by origin, but not intended as translations of them, are given in brackets and Roman type.)
|quam bella||how beautiful|
|ōra maritima||the sea-shore|
|nōn procul||not far|
|ab ōra maritimā||from the sea-shore|
|in villā||in the country-house (villa)|
|amita mea||my aunt|
|ego habitō||I dwell, I am staying|
|cum amitā||with my aunt|
|ante iānuam||before the door|
|villae||of the country-house|
|ārea||an open space (area)|
|in āreā||in the open space|
|sub umbrā||under the shade (umbra, shade; cf. ‘umbrella’)|
|castaneae||of the chestnut-tree|
|cēnam parat||prepares supper|
|amō ōram||I love the shore|
|amō villam bellam||I love the pretty country-house|
Compare the different forms of the same word (Singular Number) in the following sentences :
Villa bella est. There is a pretty country-house, or The country- house is pretty.
Villam bellam amo. I love the pretty country-house.
Ianua villae bellae est aperta. The door of the pretty country-house is open.
In villa bella habito. I am staying in the pretty country house.
Note. ego habito, I am staying (where the word I has some stress); amo, I love (where the word I has no stress.)
§1. (Nominative and Ablative Singular.)
- Villa est bella.
- Castanea est bella.
- Ancilla in villa habitat.
- Ora maritima non procul a1 villa est.
- Non procul ab ora maritima habito.
- Sub castanea interdum canto.
- How pretty is the chestnut-tree !
- Not far from the chestnut-tree a nightingale sings.
- Not far from the country-house is the sea-shore.2
- Not far from the sea-shore is the chestnut-tree.
- In the country-house I now live.
§1 continued. (Genitive Singular.)
- Amita mea sub umbra castaneae interdum cantat.
- Cum amita mea sub umbra castaneae interdum canto.
- Ancilla amitae meae in villa habitat.
- Ancilla in villa amitae meae habitat
- Ianua non procul ab ora maritima est.
- My aunt’s country house is pretty.
- The door of the country-house is not far from the sea-shore.3
- Where is the nightingale ?
- The nightingale sometimes sings under the shade of the chestnut-tree.
- The nightingale does not live (say not lives) in the chestnut tree.
After §1. Conversation.
Q. Ubi est villa ?
A. Villa non procul ab ora maritima est
Q. Ubi est castanea ?
A. Castanea in area est.
Q. Ubi ancilla cenam parat?
A. Ancilla sub umbra castaneae cenam interdum parat
Q. Ancilla in villa habitat?4
A. Ancilla in villa habitat.
2 Order of Words, Rule 1. — Put the Adjective immediately AFTER its Noun. The English order is just the opposite ; thus where English says ‘a pretty house,’ Latin says ‘a house pretty’ ; where English says ‘the sea-shore’ or ‘the maritime shore’ Latin says ‘the shore maritime.’ This rule applies also to Possessive Adjectives, like ‘my,’ ‘your,’ ‘his,’ ‘our,’ ‘their’: thus where English says ‘my aunt’ Latin says ‘aunt mine.’ But the rule does not apply to Adjectives used with the verb ‘to be,’ as in ‘the country-house is pretty’ or ‘how pretty the country-house is I’
3 Order of Words, Rule 2.— Put the Adverb BEFORE the Verb or other word which it qualifies. The English order is often different ; thus where English says ‘sings well’ Latin says ‘well sings.’ English may say ‘ sings sometimes ‘ or ‘ sometimes sings,’ but Latin always says ‘ sometimes Dings.’ This rule applies to the Adverb non, which must always come immedialily before the word which it negatives ; and it also applies to Adverbial phrases formed with Prepositions, such as ‘ far from the sea-shore ‘, ‘ under the shade of the chestnut-tree ‘ ; thus for ‘ the nightingale sings under the shade of the chestnut-tree’ say ‘ the nightingale under the sliade of the chestnut-tree sings ‘.
4 Questions may be asked in conversational Latin, as in English, simply by changine; the tone of the voice, and without any interrogative particle ; e.g. ‘vis pugnare?’ you want to fight? (Plautus, Rudens ion). This is very common in Plautus and Terence. But it is easy to introduce the particle ‘-ne’ to the pupil from the first, if the teacher prefers ; e.g. Habitatne ancilla in villa?